This image, based on variations in electrical conductivity of underground rock, shows the volcanic plume of partly molten rock that feeds the Yellowstone supervolcano. Yellow and red indicate higher conductivity, green and blue indicate lower conductivity. Made by University of Utah geophysicists and computer scientists, this is the first large-scale “geoelectric” image of the Yellowstone hotspot. (Credit: University of Utah.)
ScienceDaily (Apr. 10, 2011) — University of Utah geophysicists made the first large-scale picture of the electrical conductivity of the gigantic underground plume of hot and partly molten rock that feeds the Yellowstone supervolcano. The image suggests the plume is even bigger than it appears in earlier images made with earthquake waves.
“It’s like comparing ultrasound and MRI in the human body; they are different imaging technologies,” says geophysics Professor Michael Zhdanov, principal author of the new study and an expert on measuring magnetic and electrical fields on Earth’s surface to find oil, gas, minerals and geologic structures underground.
“It’s a totally new and different way of imaging and looking at the volcanic roots of Yellowstone,” says study co-author Robert B. Smith, professor emeritus and research professor of geophysics and a coordinating scientist of the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory.
Here is what happens if you didn’t bail out the banksters:
Feb. 28 (Bloomberg) — Europeans left stranded at airports last year as an Icelandic volcano spewed ash across the continent may soon benefit from the power that seethes beneath the remote north Atlantic island.
Iceland is doing a feasibility study into building a 1,170- kilometer (727-mile) power cable to Scotland to send some of its untapped potential 18 terawatt-hours of geothermal and hydropower — that’s enough for 5 million European homes. The project has the full backing of the government, Industry Minister Katrin Juliusdottir said in an interview.
“Icelanders live with earthquakes and volcanic activity but the benefits are that now we can monetize these powers,” said Valdimar Armann, an economist at Reykjavik-based asset manager GAMMA, who estimates annual clean-energy exports could reach about a tenth of the island’s $12 billion economy.
The island is trying to emerge from Europe’s biggest banking meltdown this century to restyle itself as one of the European Union’s main sources of renewable energy. The power cable, which would be the longest of its kind ever built, would come as the EU strives to reach its target of 20 percent clean energy by 2020. In about 20 years, Iceland’s energy revenue per capita may rival that in Norway, where oil income has made its $540 billion sovereign wealth fund the world’s second-biggest, Armann said.
Scientists in Iceland are warning that another volcano looks set to erupt and threatening to spew-out a pall of dust that would dwarf last year’s event.
Geologists detected the high risk of a new eruption after evaluating an increased swarm of earthquakes around the island’s second largest volcano.
Pall Einarsson, a professor of geophysics at the University of Iceland, says the area around Bárdarbunga is showing signs of increased activity, which provides “good reason to worry”.
He told the country’s national TV station that a low number of seismometer measuring devices in the area is making it more difficult to determine the scale and likely outcome of the current shifts.
Der Spiegel reports on geologists warning of a mega-eruption. Article in German below.
In the news:
- 320000 flee volcano (The Age)
Geologen warnen vor Mega-Eruption des Merapi
(Click on images to enlarge.)
800 Grad heiße Schwaden, binnen Sekunden verbrannte Menschen – die lautlosen, rennwagenschnellen Aschewolken des indonesischen Vulkans Merapi sind tödlich. Der größte Ausbruch könnte noch bevorstehen: Unter dem Berg schlummert offenbar ein riesiges Magmareservoir.
Die Ausbrüche des Merapi werden heftiger – und der große Knall steht möglicherweise noch bevor. Seit Tagen spuckt der indonesische Vulkan 800 Grad heiße Aschewolken. An diesem Freitag hat es den bisher heftigsten Ausbruch gegeben: 20 Kilometer weit rasten die Ströme aus Wasserdampf und Vulkanstaub gespenstisch leise bergabwärts. Die sogenannten pyroklastischen Ströme gleiten auf einem Luftkissen mit der Geschwindigkeit eines Rennwagens nahezu lautlos zu Tal – und sind tödlich: Nach wenigen Atemzügen festigt sich die Asche in der Lunge zu Zement, so dass Menschen ersticken. Die Leichen verkohlen, für Untersuchungen müssen die Körper mit Hammer und Meißel geöffnet werden.
Nachts jagen die Ascheströme meist unentdeckt abwärts, nur ein rötliches Glühen verrät manche Wolken – Schlafende bekommen von der Gefahr nichts mit. Einzig eine Warnung vor dem Ausbruch ermöglicht Menschen die Flucht vor den Todeswolken. Deshalb haben indonesische Behörden die Sperrzonen um den Vulkan immer mehr erweitert. Nun sollen alle Anwohner im Umkreis von 20 Kilometern in Flüchtlingslager gehen. Doch viele weigern sich, ihre Häuser zu verlassen.
Schon 122 Menschen sind in den pyroklastischen Strömen ums Leben gekommen, die meisten von ihnen an diesem Freitag.“Die Hitze umgab uns, und überall war weißer Rauch zu sehen”, sagte der 47-jährige Niti Raharjo, der mit seinem 19-jährigen Sohn vor der Gaswolke floh, der Nachrichtenagentur DAPD. “Ich sah Menschen rennen, im Dunkeln schreien, Frauen so verängstigt, dass sie ohnmächtig wurden.”
JAKARTA (Reuters) – Indonesia’s Mount Merapi volcano erupted on Monday for the third time in a week, driving the number of refugees to almost 70,000, as the death toll from a tsunami thousands of kilometers to the west rose to 431, officials said.
The fresh eruption forced a thick ash cloud around 1.5 kilometers (0.9 miles) into the air above Merapi, which sits on the outskirts of Yogyakarta city in Central Java, and caused panicked residents to flee villages on the slopes of the mountain for safety shelters.
The National Disaster Mitigation Agency said that 38 people have been killed and 69,533 evacuated since Merapi began erupting last week, while Indonesia’s vulcanology agency warned that flights around Yogyakarta may be disrupted.
Indonesia’s Anak Krakatau volcano in Sunda Strait, straddling East Java and Sumatra, has spewed ash and flaming rocks.
Officials raised alert levels to ‘high’ on Friday as the volcano showed signs of increased activity, producing 117 small eruptions.
Staff at the observation post in Pasauran, Banten Province are on a 24-hour watch. Residents in Pasauran have been told to stay at least two kilometres away from the volcano.
Anak Krakatau means ‘Child of Krakatau’, named so because it rose in the place of Krakatoa volcano after it blew itself apart in one of the most destructive eruptions in history in 1883. The area is a popular tourist site and many villagers farm on the slopes of nearby Ibu Krakatau (Mother of Krakatau) on the same island.
“Until now we are still on alert level but when we examined our equipment on October 27 and 28 we experienced tremors,” said Anton Priambudi, a volcanologist observing Anak Krakatau.
Several volcanos in Indonesia increased their activities recently following Mount Merapi’s eruption on Tuesday.
The eruptions came only a day after a tsunami struck the remote islands in western Indonesia.
Sat Oct 30 2010 17:55:46
Source: ITN NEWS
Alert Raised as Anak Krakatau Acts Up
Nov. 2 Jakarta — The Volcanology and Geological Disaster Mitigation Agency on Monday warned the public to avoid the increasingly active Anak Krakatau volcano in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra.
Anton Triambudi, an official from the agency, or PVMBG, said the volcano spewed heat clouds and lava on Monday.
He said people should stay at least two kilometers away from the area to avoid being hit by scorching debris reaching temperatures up to 1,000 degrees Celsius.
Authorities have raised the volcano’s alert level to II, which means there is magma activity that could lead to an eruption.
If the volcanic activity escalates, Anton said the alert level could be raised to III, with IV being the highest.
European Neanderthals may have been wiped out by a catastrophic volcanic eruption over 40,000 years ago, according to new research.
A new study says that a massive explosion caused the onset of a ‘volcanic winter’ that devastated their population.
Researchers led by Liubov Golovanova of Russia’s ANO Laboratory of Prehistory in St. Petersburg report that volcanic dust deposits found in a cave in the Caucasus show that an ecological disaster was responsible.
Very few plants existed in the volcanic dust layers, the researchers discovered.
The loss of plants would have affected the population of large mammals, which were the Neanderthals’ main source of food.
The Neanderthals were replaced about 30,000 years ago by modern-day humans.
Volcano erupts in Indonesia forcing thousands from homes
(Reuters) — A volcano has erupted on the Indonesian island of Sumatra for the first time in four centuries, sending smoke 1,500 metres into the air and prompting the evacation of thousands of residents.
There are no reports of casualties so far, and aviation in the area is unaffected.
Mount Sinabung, in the north of Sumatra, began erupting around midnight after rumbling for several days. Lava was overflowing from its crater, the head of Indonesia’s vulcanology centre told Reuters news agency. The agency has placed the volcano on red alert, its highest level.
2nd Iceland volcano issues warning
LONDON – A second, much larger volcano in Iceland is showing signs that it may be about to erupt, scientists have warned.
Since the start of the Eyjafjallajökull eruption, which caused cancellations of thousands of flights in Europe because of a giant ash cloud, there has been much speculation about neighboring Katla.
An initial research paper by the University College of London Institute for Risk and Disaster Reduction said: “Analysis of the seismic energy released around Katla over the last decade or so is interpreted as providing evidence of a rising … intrusive magma body on the western flank of the volcano.”
“Earlier seismic energy release at Katla is associated with the inflation of the volcano, which indicates it is close to failure, although this does not appear to be linked to seismicity around Eyjafjallajökull,” it added. Continue reading »
The Hekla volcano has had more than 20 major eruptions since the 9th century, and Hekla has had eruptions in 1980, 1991 and 2000.
Many believe that the next Hekla eruption is imminent, and the recent Iceland volcano eruption in Eyjafjallajoekull has added to those fears.
But rumors of a Hekla volcano eruption today are false.
Twitter was filled with Hekla eruption rumors after an MSNBC Twitter feed @BreakingNews tweeted, “Large plume indicates second Icelandic volcano, Hekla, has begun erupting – watch live http://bit.ly/9iNfKE.”
That tweet was retweeted more than 600 times, though the feed later corrected itself.
The BNO News Wire Service also reported the eruption, stating, “REYKJAVIK (BNO NEWS) — The Hekla volcano in southern Iceland has erupted.” Continue reading »
Flying over Eyjafjallajökull, the Icelandic volcano that’s brought Europe’s air travel to a halt, is not for the fainthearted. And there may be worse to come.
Fresh eruptions thrust new torrents of molten rock through the shattered ice sheets in the mountain crater, spewing a towering wall of ash, dust and steam high into the air. Photo: SIGURSTEINN BALDURSSON
The power and wrath of Eyjafjallajökull came into dramatic clarity this weekend as the clouds parted for the first time since the glacier-topped volcano threw world air travel into turmoil.
Fresh eruptions thrust new torrents of molten rock through the shattered ice sheets in the mountain crater, spewing a towering wall of ash, dust and steam high into the air.
I was aboard a small six-seater helicopter carrying the first civilian passengers to approach the scene when coastguard observers operating aircraft high above warned the pilot to be wary of the latest barrage of explosions. Continue reading »
Footage released of erupting Icelandic volcano (ITN)
A Cloud of Volcanic Ash Has Led To Airpace Closures All Over Europe
Smoke and steam is seen rising from the volcano under the Eyjafjallajokull glacier in Iceland, which erupted for the second time in less than a month. The eruption melted ice, shot smoke and steam into the air and forced hundreds of people to flee rising floodwaters. (AP)
The potentially dangerous cloud of ash and rock spewed up by the volcano more than 1,000 miles away caused the U.K., Norway, Ireland and Sweden to enforce a nationwide no fly policy, stranding thousands of travelers .
France has also announced some airport closures, and Holland, Belgium, Denmark and Germany are expected to follow suit.
“So we’re talking about almost one quarter of the entire European area is closed to aircraft at the moment.” Brian Flyn of EuroControl, a European aviation authority, told reporters.
It is not yet clear when the flying restrictions will be lifted, but the Eyjafjallajokull volcano is still erupting and could continue spewing ash into the atmosphere for weeks.
“It is likely that the production of ash will continue at a comparable level for some days or weeks,” said Einar Kjartansson, a geophysicist at the Icelandic Meteorological Office. “But where it disrupts travel, that depends on the weather.” Continue reading »
ROME (AFP) – Europe’s largest undersea volcano could disintegrate and unleash a tsunami that would engulf southern Italy “at any time”, a prominent vulcanologist warned in an interview published Monday.
The Marsili volcano, which is bursting with magma, has “fragile walls” that could collapse, Enzo Boschi told the leading daily Corriere della Sera.
“It could even happen tomorrow,” said Boschi, president of the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology (INGV).
“Our latest research shows that the volcano is not structurally solid, its walls are fragile, the magma chamber is of sizeable dimensions,” he said. “All that tells us that the volcano is active and could begin erupting at any time.”
The event would result in “a strong tsunami that could strike the coasts of Campania, Calabria and Sicily,” Boschi said.
The undersea Marsili, 3,000 meters (9,800 feet) tall and located some 150 kilometres (90 miles) southwest of Naples, has not erupted since the start of recorded history.
It is 70 kilometres long and 30 kilometres wide, and its crater is some 450 metres below the surface of the Tyrrhenian Sea. Continue reading »
1. Those idiots should study nature, doing their best to understand it and not experiment with it.
2. There is no such thing as man-made global warming and global warming in general is a total scam.
(More information below the following article.)
A geoengineering project to block the sun by simulating volcanic eruptions would be 100 times cheaper than cutting greenhouse gas emissions, climate change scientists said.
A global plan to put man-made particles into the atmosphere to deflect the Sun’s heat would rapidly lower global temperatures until cuts in carbon dioxide emissions took effect, they argued.
They acknowledged concerns about geoengineering but said multi-national experiments should begin soon before it is too late to reverse climate change or in case a rogue state carried out separate measures.
The environmental scientists, David Keith of the University of Calgary in Canada, Edward Parson of the University of Michigan and Granger Morgan of Carnegie Mellon University, were writing an editorial in the journal, Nature.
They called for governments to establish a multimillion-pound fund for research into the simulated volcanoes and other solar-radiation management techniques for shielding the Earth against sunlight.
“The idea of deliberately manipulating Earth’s energy balance to offset human-driven climate change strikes many as dangerous hubris,” they wrote. Continue reading »
Alaska’s Mount Redoubt volcano has begun erupting over night, sending smoke billowing some 50,000 feet above sea level.
Geologists at the Alaska Volcano Observatory said the volcano, which is roughly 100 miles from southwest of Anchorage, erupted three times late on Sunday and early on Monday.
“This is a fairly large eruption, close to the larger cities in Alaska,” said John Power, a geophysicist.
More information: Q & A: Will Mount Redoubt erupt again? (MSNBC)
He said no cities have yet reported any ash fall from the volcano, but he added that it is still early.
Geologists said seismic activity around the volcano has been intense in recent days, and they expect that the volcano would blow soon.
Japan has announced plans to build its first new geothermal power stations in nearly two decades in a bid to tap the nation’s domestic energy sources.
A string of geothermal power plants are to be developed by a number of firms keen to capitalise on the active volcanic landscape that spans the country, while the government is also currently compiling guidelines supporting the development of such energy sources.
Home to 108 active volcanoes – ten per cent of the world’s active volcanoes – Japan is in a prime position to tap into underground geothermal energy sources.
As a nation with few natural resources, Japan has long been dependent on importing substantial quantities of crude oil and natural gas. The country’s renewed focus on geothermal energy marks a desired shift away from its dependency on imported energy sources which has made it susceptible to increasingly volatile prices.
For three straight days, Yellowstone National Park has been shaken by a serise of small earthquakes. Scientists are watching to see whether the tremors are signaling something bigger to come. (ABC News Photo Illustration)
CHEYENNE, Wyo. (AP) – Yellowstone National Park was jostled by a host of small earthquakes for a third straight day Monday, and scientists watched closely to see whether the more than 250 tremors were a sign of something bigger to come. Swarms of small earthquakes happen frequently in Yellowstone, but it’s very unusual for so many earthquakes to happen over several days, said Robert Smith, a professor of geophysics at the University of Utah.
“They’re certainly not normal,” Smith said. “We haven’t had earthquakes in this energy or extent in many years.”
Smith directs the Yellowstone Seismic Network, which operates seismic stations around the park. He said the quakes have ranged in strength from barely detectable to one of magnitude 3.8 that happened Saturday. A magnitude 4 quake is capable of producing moderate damage.
“This is an active volcanic and tectonic area, and these are the kinds of things we have to pay attention to,” Smith said. “We might be seeing something precursory.
- Yellowstone National Park Hit by Hundreds of Small Earthquakes (Bloomberg)
“Could it develop into a bigger fault or something related to hydrothermal activity? We don’t know. That’s what we’re there to do, to monitor it for public safety.”
PUZZLE: Is there a common thread or were events just coincidence?
How likely is it that three neighboring volcanoes would all erupt at the same time — as the Kasatochi, Okmok and Cleveland volcanoes in the Aleutians did this summer?
About as likely as a storm that only appears once in a thousand years, says Anchorage volcanologist Peter Cervelli, who’ll deliver a paper on the subject this winter to the American Geophysical Union.
In other words, seldom enough that Cervelli is now exploring the question of whether Alaska’s triple eruption was only a coincidence involving three independent volcanoes or whether it was triggered by some common mechanism.
A volcano in Hawaii has begun to spew lava in greater quantities than witnessed ever before, experts have warned.
The lava flow from Kilauea, which has been erupting on and off for 25 years, started on Nov 21 last year. But experts said that more lava is spilling from the volcano and into the ocean than usual.
Officials at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory said that the lava is emerging near the Pacific on the southeastern side of the state’s Big Island. A surface flow is snaking eastwards from the crater, while underground “tubes” are also expelling lava into the ocean.
See what is really going on at the RSOE Alertmap – The Infinite Unknown
Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine (OISM)
Who: Dr. Arthur Robinson of the OISM
What: release of names in OISM “Petition Project”
When: 10 AM, Monday May 19
Where: Holeman Lounge at the National Press Club, 529 14th St., NW, Washington, DC
Why: The Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine (OISM) will announce that more than 31,000 scientists have signed a petition rejecting claims of human-caused global warming. The purpose of OISM’s Petition Project is to demonstrate that the claim of “settled science” and an overwhelming “consensus” in favor of the hypothesis of human-caused global warming and consequent climate damage is wrong. No such consensus or settled science exists. As indicated by the petition text and signatory list, a very large number of American scientists reject this hypothesis.
It is evident that 31,072 Americans with university degrees in science – including 9,021 PhDs, are not “a few.” Moreover, from the clear and strong petition statement that they have signed, it is evident that these 31,072 American scientists are not “skeptics.”
CONTACT: Audrey Mullen, +1-703-548-1160, for the Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine
/PRNewswire-USNewswire — May 15/
SOURCE Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine
Source: Street Insider
The eruptions that have shaken the Mount Etna volcano on the southern Italian island of Sicily have subsided, experts said Sunday at the Palermo Geophysics and Volcanology Institute.The eruptions, which started Saturday afternoon, died away towards 9:30 p.m. (1930 GMT) the same evening.
“Seismic activity has returned to normal,” a technician told AFP.
The eruption, accompanied by streams of lava, had started between 3 and 4:00 p.m. local time on the volcano’s southeast crater.
The last eruption of Mount Etna was in November last year, two months after another eruption forced a temporary closure of nearby Catania airport due to flying lava and clouds of ash.
The last truly spectacular eruption was in the summer of 2001.
Sun May 11, 2:20 PM ET
SANTIAGO, Chile (AP) — The long-dormant Chaiten volcano blasted ash some 20 miles (30 kilometers) into the Andean sky on Tuesday, forcing the last of thousands to evacuate and fouling a huge stretch of the South American continent.
A thick column of ash climbed into the stratosphere and blew eastward for hundreds of miles (kilometers) over Patagonia to the Atlantic Ocean, closing schools and a regional airport. Chilean and Argentine citizens were advised to wear masks to avoid breathing the dangerous fallout.
Chilean officials ordered the total evacuation of Chaiten, a small provincial capital in an area of lakes and glacier-carved fjords just six miles (10 kilometers) from the roiling cloud.
Interior Minister Edmundo Perez said anyone still in the area should “urgently head to ships in the bay to be evacuated.”
More than 4,000 people were evacuated over the weekend and 350 more headed out Tuesday.
Also emptied was the soot-coated border town of Futaleufu, about 75 miles (120 kilometers) from the volcano.
The five-day-old eruption is the first in 9,370 years, said Charles Stern, a volcanologist at the University of Colorado-Boulder who has studied Chaiten.
He said the nearby town could end up buried, much like the Roman city of Pompeii following Mount Vesuvius’ eruption in 79 A.D. Volcanic material from Chaiten’s last eruption measured up to 5 feet in places.
“What happens after today is anybody’s guess,” Stern said. Continue reading »