H/t reader kevin a.
* * *
On November 17, 2017, a pilot flying over Öræfajökull volcano in Iceland noticed a new ice-caldron within the volcano’s caldera. Now, volcanologists say the situation is far from normal.
Volcanologist Ármann Höskuldsson says that the situation at Öræfajökull volcano is far from normal.
The caldera has deepened by 20 meters (65 feet) and crevasses have become larger since it was first spotted, according to 3D image made by Geological Institute of the University of Iceland. In addition, a geothermal heat has been detected in the area.
Red alert issued as ash from Mount Agung rises 4,000 meters (about 2.5 miles) into the sky.
This is according to Sutopo Purwo Nugroho, head of information and data for Indonesia’s National Disaster Management Agency.
The red warning means an eruption is forecast to be imminent, with significant emission of ash likely.
Most reports say 25,000 have been evacuated, but one report estimates as many as 140,000 evacuees.
Authorities have begun distributing masks in some areas as ash falls.
* * *
Satellite images show a new caldera forming in the ice with a diameter of one kilometer (6/10ths of a mile) in Öræfajökull glacier.
Öræfajökull glacier is located in Vatnajökull, Iceland’s largest glacier.
Although seismic activity has subsided in recent days, activity had increased activity in recent months.
As we’ve pointed out, the supervolcano phenomenon is hardly unique to Yellowstone National Park, where a long dormant volcano with the potential to cause a devastating eruption has been rumbling since mid-summer, making some scientists uneasy.
Surprisingly active supervolcanos have been documented in Italy, North Korea and, now, Antarctica after scientists at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) have found new evidence to support a theory that the breakup of Antarctic ice may be caused in part by a massive geothermal heat source, with output close to the scale of Yellowstone National Park.
Of course, if accurate, this theory would help rebut the notion that man-made climate change is in part responsible for the melting ice, Russia Today reports.
A geothermal heat source called a mantle plume, a hot stream of subterranean molten rock that rises through the Earth’s crust, may explain the breathing effect visible on Antarctica’s Marie Byrd Land and elsewhere along the massive ice sheet.
While the mantle plume is not a new discovery, the recent research indicates it may explain why the ice sheet collapsed in a previous era of rapid climate change 11,000 years ago, and why the sheet is breaking up so quickly now.
“I thought it was crazy. I didn’t see how we could have that amount of heat and still have ice on top of it,” said Hélène Seroussi of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California.
Seroussi and Erik Ivins of JPL used the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM), a mathematical depiction of the physics of ice sheets developed by scientists at JPL and the University of California, Irvine. Seroussi then tweaked the ISSM to hunt for natural heat sources as well as meltwater deposits.
Seismic experts have been called in to carry out tests on the Canary island of La Palma after fears that an active volcano may erupt.
Hundreds of mini-earthquakes have been recorded on the island in the past few weeks, and scientists are now monitoring the seismic activity on La Palma 24 hours-a-day.
Tests will be carried out on the slopes of the island’s active volcano – Cumbre Vieja – to calculate any potential risk of an eruption.
* * *
The Pacific “Ring of Fire” is living up to its name.
The 450 or so volcanoes that make up the ring outline have been unusually active this year, sparking evacuations on the Indonesian island of Bali and on the tiny island nation of Vanuatu. Parts of southwestern Japan, meanwhile, have been shaken by a series of earthquakes, unsettling the local population, in an area where the massive Pacific Plate grinds against other plates that form the Earth’s crust, creating a 25,000-mile zone where earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are unusually common.
Three volcanos have either erupted, or are showing signs of an imminent eruption, across the region, according to a roundup published by the Associated Press.
Scientists from the US Geological Survey who breezily informed the public that there’s “nothing to worry about” with regards to the Yellowstone caldera, a supervolcano that should it erupt could cause potentially hundreds of thousands of deaths, should be eating their words.
Since about mid-July, the earth beneath the volcano has been shifting in a sign that magma could be rushing into the caldera’s main chamber. Since then, there have been roughly 2,500 small-scale earthquakes recorded near the volcano, the largest stretch on record. Previous estimates had assumed that the process that led to the eruption took millenniums to occur.
The same estimates that USGS based their warning on.
As the New York Times explains, the Yellowstone caldera is a behemoth far more powerful than your average volcano. It has the ability to expel more than 1,000 cubic kilometers of rock and ash at once, 2,500 times more material than erupted from Mount St. Helens in 1980, which killed 57 people. That could blanket most of the United States in a thick layer of ash and even plunge the Earth into a volcanic winter.
In the latest example of a natural cataclysm displacing tens of thousands of people, and as reported earlier this week, the number of people taking shelter in makeshift evacuation centers on the Indonesian island of Bali has surged to around 104,000, officials said on Thursday, as residents fled the area around a rumbling, active volcano that is expected to erupt momentarily.
Mount Agung, the largest volcano on the island, located some 50 miles from the tourist hub of Kuta, has been shaking since August, and its tremors have increased in both intensity and strength, prompting the Balinese government to evacuate prisoners from local jails and evacuated tourists and residents away from the base of the volcano. The island’s government has declared a state of emergency, according to Reuters.
Thousands more people have been forced to flee in recent day as the government set up an exclusion zone around the volcano’s perimeter.
According to experts who spoke with the Guardian, an eruption is imminent.
After the long-dormant supervolcano Campi Flegrei awakened late last year, a team of scientists that has pinpointed the now-active volcano’s magma source says a potentially devastating eruption could be just around the corner.
Campi Flegrei is a volcanic caldera to the west of Naples that last erupted in the sixteenth century. It has been mostly quiet since then, with the exception of a few small tremors in the 1980s. Seismographic data from those rumbles allowed scientists to pinpoint the source of the magma that flooded into Campi Flegrei’s chamber and caldera, according to United Press International. The results are unequivocal: An analysis of the supervolcano’s hot zone suggests Campi Flegrei could be nearing an eruption.
Two weeks ago, we reported that Brian Wilcox, a former member of the NASA Advisory Council on Planetary Defense, had shared a report on what the Space Agency considered one of the greatest natural threats to human civilization: the Yellowstone “supervolcano.”
Government officials have been closely monitoring the activity in the Yellowstone caldera. However, scientists at NASA have now come up with an incredibly risky plan to save the United States from the super volcano.
A NASA scientist has spoken out about the true threat of super volcanoes and the risky methods that could be used to prevent a devastating eruption. Lying beneath the tranquil and beautiful settings of Yellowstone National Park in the US lies an enormous magma chamber, called a caldera. It’s responsible for the geysers and hot springs that define the area, but for scientists at NASA, it’s also one of the greatest natural threats to human civilization as we know it.