Dec 01


UK Prime Minister David Cameron Compares Those Against Syrian Airstrikes to “Terrorist Sympathizers”:

How low can a politician go? It seems David Cameron is trying his best to find out.

For those of you not paying attention to politics across the pond, UK Prime Minister David Cameron is desperately trying to secure backing for his enthusiastic push to start bombing Syria. Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn is proving to be a significant thorn in his side, so this is how Cameron is fighting back.

From the Guardian:

David Cameron has appealed to Conservative MPs to give him an overall parliamentary majority in favour of military action in Syria by warning them against voting alongside “Jeremy Corbyn and a bunch of terrorist sympathizers”.

“You should not be walking through the lobbies with Jeremy Corbyn and a bunch of terrorist sympathizers,” the prime minister reportedly told the committee. Continue reading »

Tags: , , , , ,

Dec 01

Britain May Launch ISIS Strikes “Within Days”; Germany To Join With Warship, Planes, Troops:

On Saturday, in “‘The Redcoats Are Coming!’ Britain Moves Closer To Launching Anti-ISIS Airstrikes,” we warned that the skies above Syria were about to get even more crowded as David Cameron pushed British lawmakers to approve RAF strikes on Raqqa.

“It is wrong for the United Kingdom to expect the aircrews of other nations to carry the burdens and the risks of striking ISIL in Syria to stop terrorism here in Britain,” Cameron said.

“I don’t think this is a country that lets others like the French or the Americans defend our interests and protect us from terrorist organizations – we should contribute to that effort,” Finance minister George Osborne added, underscoring the perception that Britain’s military prowess is but a shadow of what it once was.

We also noted that Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn would not use a party whip to influence MP’s decisions. Over the weekend, Corbyn expressed serious reservations about the number of “moderate” rebels on the ground in Syria and also suggested that to the extent there are enough fighters to occupy the territory held by Islamic State once the group is routed, the UK shouldn’t assume that the fighters can be trusted. “I seriously question the number, I seriously question the motives and loyalty of those forces,” Corbyn said.

On Monday, Corbyn apparently attempted to compel party members to vote against military action in line with his own stance on the issue but after what FT described as a “fraught meeting”, the Labour leader bowed to internal pressure and conceded that MPs would be allowed to vote as they choose. Additionally, Corbyn abandoned the idea of setting an official policy of opposing air strikes no matter how party members voted after Andy Burnham, shadow home secretary, said that was “unacceptable”. Here’s where Corbyn’s shadow cabinet stands:

Against airstrikes

  • Jeremy Corbyn, leader of the Labour party
  • John McDonnell, shadow chancellor
  • Jon Trickett, shadow communities secretary
  • Diane Abbott, shadow international development secretary
  • Ian Murray, shadow Scotland secretary
  • John Cryer, chairman of the parliamentary Labour party
  • Nia Griffith, shadow wales secretary

For airstrikes

  • Tom Watson, deputy leader (who has asked Cameron to delay the vote pending proof that there are actually 70,000 moderate rebels on the ground)
  • Angela Eagle, shadow first secretary of state and shadow business secretary
  • Hilary Benn, shadow foreign secretary
  • Heidi Alexander, shadow health secretary
  • Lucy Powell, shadow education secretary
  • Chris Bryant, shadow leader of the house of commons
  • Vernon Coaker, shadow northern Ireland secretary
  • Michael Dugher, shadow culture secretary

With that, the stage is set for Britain to join the fray. As FT goes on to note, Corbyn’s concession to his divided party “effectively guarantees that [David Cameron] can secure a Commons majority for war.” British military action could start “within days” as the PM “reacted quickly to Corbyn’s capitulation, announcing after he returned from the Paris climate summit that he would recommend to the cabinet on Tuesday that a one-day debate and vote on military intervention in Syria be held on Wednesday.”

With the vote thus set, “RAF crews could be bombing the Isis headquarters in Raqqa by the end of the week,”The Guardian says. On Tuesday, Cameron said “the decision to take military action is one of the most serious a prime minister can make. Isis poses a very direct threat to the United Kingdom – and as we have already seen in Iraq, British airstrikes can play a key role in degrading them; but they are only part of a comprehensive strategy for Syria.

But that’s not all. Germany is now set to enter the fight as well. “German Chancellor Angela Merkel’s Cabinet approved deploying warplanes over Syria in the fight against Islamic State,” Bloomberg reported on Tuesday. Apparently, Berlin is set to send Tornado surveillance planes, a frigate to protect France’s carrier, and aerial refueling for French fighter jets.

Parliament will need to approve the deployment and a vote is expected within days. All told, around 1,200 German troops are expected to participate. This should do wonders when it comes to stemming the flow of refugees into Germany because as France explained earlier this year, by far the best way to solve a refugee crisis is to drop more bombs on the place from which the refugees are fleeing.

And with that, two more world powers will now have planes in the sky and ships in the Mediterranean. Just to be clear, this means that by the end of next week, it’s possible that American, French, Turkish, Russian, and German planes will all be flying missions above Syria, a decisively dangerous scenario now that Ankara has forced Moscow into a state of paranoia regarding the safety of The Kremlin’s aircraft. With Russian S-400s at the ready, and with Su-34s now armed with air-to-air missiles, the potential exists for another “accident.”

Additionally, it’s worth reiterating that the West and the Russians still haven’t resolved the most pressing issue when it comes to airstrikes in Syria. Namely that Moscow and Iran are still attacking the FSA and other rebel groups that are receiving guns and money on a weekly basis from the US, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, and Qatar. This means that while the West bombards Raqqa (or perhaps the better way to put is “while the West thinks they’re bombarding Raqqa based on the ‘intelligence’ they receive from Washington”), America and its regional allies are engaged in a proxy war with Moscow and Tehran in the northwest part of the country. This makes absolutely no sense and it isn’t at all compatible with David Cameron telling British lawmakers that the “moderate” opposition is in a position to hold territory formerly governed by ISIS. Not only are the rebels not in a position to secure towns and cities, they are being routed at Aleppo by the Russians and Iranians. At some point this has to be addressed but for the time being, everyone seems content with being invited to the party.


Tags: , , , ,

Nov 30

HSBC Whistleblower: The Biggest Bank Fraud in British History Carried Out on UK Shoppers and Covered Up:

“In my position, as you can imagine, I’ve got a few enemies.” An anonymous tip off has contacted the DWP to suggest that Nicholas Wilson is frauding the benefits office. “They sent a letter calling me in for a compliance interview.”

The irony is that Nicholas Wilson is a whistleblower, who has been trying to expose what would be the largest bank fraud in the history of the UK, totalling over £1bn. This is made up of illegal charges imposed by HFC Bank – previously a subsidiary of HSBC, onto unsuspecting UK customer debts on high street store cards.

“Everything I do on my campaign with HSBC, it’s all about fraud and corruption and underhand dealings. I do everything up front and transparent and that’s how I have to be. I haven’t got anything up my sleeve.” Continue reading »

Tags: , , , , , ,

Nov 30

Steering the Masses Towards Total War:

It goes without saying that the atrocities of Paris on November 13, 2015 were unspeakable and sickening. But what is not being said in the wake of the incident—what has been ignored by the mass media—is predictably telling and ominous.

As in the wake of 9/11, the people of the world are being provoked, agitated and mobilized; the fear, horror, rage and shock channeled and shaped into wave of collective vengeance and hatred. Hatred towards what and whom?

The Islamic State has claimed responsibility for the attacks. But what is the Islamic State? Continue reading »

Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Nov 29

H/t reader squodgy:

“I know this is true in Boris Johnson’s pro capitalist two society London.
The City is still a shithole, more than 50% are immigrants, mainly tax dodgers or gangsters of some degree. But anyone fighting for Social fairness or Justice is just not wanted.”

Government Trying to Illegally Deport Peaceful Political Activist from UK:

United Kingdom — A law-abiding, political protester has been threatened with deportation from the U.K. after he was arrested during a peaceful demonstration. Hungarian-born Daniel Gardonyi has lived in the U.K. for several years and tirelessly dedicated his time to protesting against the social cleansing and gentrification taking place across London.

Gardonyi’s peaceful resistance against entire communities being forced out of the capital due to affordable social housing being replaced with expensive private homes, has seen him participate in numerous high-profile protests. Continue reading »

Tags: , , , , , ,

Nov 27


Child sexual abuse inquiry: ‘People of public prominence’ in Westminster and alleged cover-up to be investigated:

Children’s homes, local councils, church institutions and schools are also being investigated

“Certain people of public prominence associated with Westminster” are to be investigated in Britain’s largest-ever public inquiry into child abuse.

Anglican and Catholic churches, children’s homes and councils in Lambeth, Nottinghamshire and Rochdale are also among the 12 separate investigations launched by the Independent Inquiry into Child Sexual Abuse.

Justice Lowell Goddard, who took over as head of the probe following the resignation of two previous chairwomen, gave an update on its progress in London today. Continue reading »

Tags: , , , , , , , , , ,

Nov 27

All those migrants are just brought into all those countries before hyperinflation and the financial/economic collapse will set in.

No coincidence. All planned. Thanks to Lord Rothschild.

They want people to fight over a dry piece of bread in the streets.

They love it when the blood is running in the streets.

Britain’s green and pleasant land is to be destroyed by increased population and immigration

636,000 migrants arrive in UK in ONE year, say goodbye to the Britain you know say experts:

A STAGGERING 636,000 immigrants have arrived in the UK in the last 12 months as experts predict the new bigger Britain will include 20 MILLION more cars and entire NEW TOWNS built to house the boom.

The UK’s beloved countryside is facing devastation with almost unimaginable amounts of infrastructure needed to cope with a dramatic rise in the number of people calling Britain their home, researchers warn.

The Office of National Statistics said the UK will face an influx of at least 10 MILLION people by 2039, with around two-thirds of that figure coming from migration. Continue reading »

Tags: , , , ,

Nov 26

“The Redcoats Are Coming!” Britain Moves Closer To Launching Anti-ISIS Airstrikes In Syria:

Now that France has officially joined the party in Syria in an effort to avenge the 130 people who lost their lives in Islamic State’s brazen assault on Paris, the odds of World War III have increased exponentially.

Sure, The Kremlin has for now instructed the military to treat the French as “allies” and for the time being, Moscow’s pilots are writing “For Paris” on bombs, but as Tuesday’s “incident” between Turkish F-16s and a Russian Su-24 makes clear, crowded skies are dangerous skies, especially when there’s a significant amount of ambiguity surrounding what everyone is up to in Syria on a day to day basis. 

Now that Russia has deployed the S-400s to Latakia and placed the Moskva guided missile cruiser equipped with S-300-like systems off the coast, anything that even looks like a threat to Russia’s air force will be “destroyed” and that, as WaPo noted on Wednesday, “has the potential to create headaches for Turkish and other aircraft in a U.S.-led coalition that are carrying out a separate airstrike campaign in Syria.”

slava cruiser


So, to the extent that the Paris attacks served to thaw tensions between Russia and the West, Turkey’s decision to shoot down an Su-24 means it was one step forward and two steps back. 

Now, it appears the already crowded playing field is about to get more cramped as David Cameron, following up on comments made during meetings with Francois Hollande, is pushing British lawmakers to approve RAF strikes on ISIS. As Reuters reports, the PM “told lawmakers on Thursday it was time to join air strikes against Islamic State militants in Syria, saying Britain cannot ‘subcontract its security to other countries’”. Continue reading »

Tags: , , , , , , ,

Nov 23


10,000 troops to be deployed on British streets to deal with a Paris-style attack, as Cameron warns ISIS could get hold of chemical weapons:

Up to 10,000 troops are on standby to be deployed on the streets of Britain in the event of a Paris-style terror attack, David Cameron announced today.

The Prime Minister said the forces were part of a new contingency plan to deal with a ‘major terrorist attack’ amid warnings that ISIS and Al Qaeda could obtain chemical and biological weapons to launch a deadly attack. Continue reading »

Tags: , , , , , , ,

Nov 22

White Christmas expected! Britain odds on after 8 inches of snow forecast for parts of UK

Britain is odds on for a white Christmas after eight inches of snow is predicted for this weekend – with temperatures colder than Moscow.

Parts of high ground in northern Scotland are facing a thick blanket of snow overnight on Saturday as Arctic winds sweep through the nation after Storm Barney.

And the bitterly cold weather means we’re facing the lowest odds this year for a white Christmas.

Alex Donohue of Ladbrokes says: “As Barney continues to huff and puff the odds of a white Christmas keep falling by the minute.”


The chilly conditions are being blamed on the coldest Atlantic temperatures since records began 80 years ago, with Northern England and Scotland in for especially “full-on cold spells,” according to AccuWeather. Continue reading »

Tags: , , , , ,

Nov 19

UK’s coal plants to be shut down ‘within 10 years’:

“The UK’s remaining coal-fired power stations will be shut by 2025 with their use restricted by 2023,” says this article from the BBC. 
Relying on “polluting” coal is “perverse,” says Energy Secretary Amber Rudd.

Instead, she will recommend that gas become “central” to the UK’s future, with building new gas-fired power stations an “imperative”. Continue reading »

Tags: , , , , , ,

Nov 19

H/t reader squodgy:

“Brexit a non event. YES!!!

So let’s escape while we still can.”

Stunning Blow to EU Scaremongers over Brexit:

French investment bank Natixis sides with rebellious islanders.

The UK will hold a referendum by the end of 2017 on whether or not to stay in the EU. No country has ever left the EU. The fact that the now second largest economy in the EU is threatening to do so because its people may want out has set off a bout of hot-and-heavy scaremongering. Continue reading »

Tags: , , , , , , , ,

Nov 19

Camoron more lies

MPs snub 190,000-strong petition calling for no confidence vote in David Cameron:

The e-petition, which accuses Mr Cameron of causing ‘devastation for the poorest in society for the last 5 years’, will not be debated by MPs despite it easily passing the 100,000-signatures threshold

MPs have snubbed a 190,000-strong petition calling for a no confidence vote in David Cameron.

The e-petition, which accuses Mr Cameron of causing “devastation for the poorest in society for the last 5 years,” took advantage of an iniative introduced by Mr Cameron in 2010 allowing members of the public to suggest motions for MPs to debate in Parliament.  Continue reading »

Tags: , , , , ,

Nov 18

H/t reader squodgy:

Company failures fall strongly across UK – especially in London:

Insolvency Index: capital and Wales enjoy largest decreases as key sectors show recovery

London and Wales showed large falls in company failures as insolvencies across the UK dropped year on year for the third quarter in a row.

The Exaro Insolvency Index reveals that London enjoyed the largest fall, as the number of companies that filed one or more insolvency notices dropped in the three months to September by 22.2 per cent compared to the same period in 2014, decreasing from 1,742 to 1,355. Continue reading »

Tags: , , ,

Nov 16

MI6 Building at Vauxhall Cross

Britain to hire 2,000 new spies at MI5, MI6 and GCHQ in wake of the Paris terror attacks:

An additional 2,000 spies will be hired at MI5, MI6 and GCHQ to fight those “who would destroy us and our values” in the wake of the Paris terror attacks, David Cameron has said.

The number of spies will rise by 15 per cent in what is expected to be the biggest expansion of the security services since the 7/7 terror attacks in London in July 2005.

Tags: , , , , , ,

Nov 14

Tags: , , , , ,

Nov 13


* * *

H/t reader squodgy:

“Isis victims families have “extreme doubts about his killing”

Why would that be, I wonder?”

Jihadi John

Jihadi John ‘dead’: British associate on Mohammed Emwazi detained in Turkey – live updates:

The jihadist was targeted as he travelled through the Isis stronghold of Raqqa, Syria

The British Isis militant known as Jihadi John has been targeted by a US air strike in Syria. Here are the latest updates:

Mohammed Emwazi, who appeared in a series of gory propaganda videos showing the beheading of foreign journalists and aid workers last year, was targeted in the Isis stronghold of Raqqa last night.There has been no official confirmation of his death but a senior US military official told Fox News: “We are 99 per cent sure we got him.”

Philip Hammond told Reuters the British government “believes the strike was successful”, while David Cameron stopped short of confirming the hit but praised a “strike at the heart of Isis”.

Activists from anti-Isis group Raqqa is Being Slaughtered Silently said a drone targeted the car Emwazi was travelling in at around 11.41pm local time (9.41pm GMT) and that around a dozen more air strikes were counted before midnight.

The Pentagon has confirmed the air strike but said it would not formally announce the result until it had been fully assessed.

Tags: , , , , , , , , , , ,

Nov 13

The town centre of Crickhowell, located within the Brecon Beacons

Crickhowell: Welsh town moves ‘offshore’ to avoid tax on local business:

The Powys tax rebellion, led by traders including the town’s salmon smokery, local coffee shop, book shop, optician and bakery, could spread nationwide

When independent traders in a small Welsh town discovered the loopholes used by multinational giants to avoid paying UK tax, they didn’t just get mad.

Now local businesses in Crickhowell are turning the tables on the likes of Google and Starbucks by employing the same accountancy practices used by the world’s biggest companies, to move their entire town “offshore”. Continue reading »

Tags: , , , , , ,

Nov 13


FARAGE FOR BREITBART: Europe Can’t Put The Migrant Champagne Cork Back In The Open Borders Bottle:

As all high-living Breitbart London readers will know, getting the cork out of a champagne bottle can sometimes be a little tricky. But once achieved it is followed by a rush of bubbles and energy. But if half way through the bottle you decide you’ve had enough, have a go at putting the cork back in.

Once, in a moment of sobriety, I attempted this exercise. It’s impossible.  Continue reading »

Tags: , , , , , , ,

Nov 12

Real Estate Bubble

Luxury London Real Estate Prices Plunge 11.5% Year-Over-Year:

Two months ago I published a piece titled, Luxury London Home Sales Plunge 26% – Has this Mega Real Estate Bubble Finally Burst?. I wrote:

It appears the music may have finally stopped for one of the world’s largest luxury real estate bubbles: London.

It’s well known that foreign oligarchs love London real estate as a means to launder funds, typically “earned” by soaking their host countries dry via corruption and fraud. This has caused absurd and irrational spikes in high-end residential real estate in the English capital, as well as a flood of new construction.

With emerging markets now completely collapsing, the seemingly endless flood of foreign money is drying up, and with it, London real estate.

So has the London real estate bubble popped? Probably.

Now we see the following from Bloomberg: Continue reading »

Tags: , , , ,

Nov 12

Joseph Cannataci, United Nations special rapporteur on prviacy

UN privacy chief: UK surveillance bill is ‘worse than scary’:

The UK government’s proposed surveillance legislation is “worse than scary”, the United Nations privacy chief has said.

Joseph Cannataci, the UN’s special rapporteur on privacy, attacked the government’s draft Investigatory Powers Bill, saying he had never seen evidence that mass surveillance works. He also accused MPs of leading an “absolute offensive” and an “orchestrated” media campaign to distort the debate and take hold of new powers.

The comments came during a live streamed keynote presentation at the Internet Governance Forum in Brazil, where leading experts from around the world have gathered to discuss the future of the internet and web policy. Continue reading »

Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Nov 10

Son Of Billionaire Steel Magnate Plunges To His Death Amid Demise Of UK Industry

Tags: , ,

Nov 09


H/t reader squodgy:


More madness, lies, disinfo, bullshit & propaganda…….”

UK: In 1st, global temps average could be 1 degree C higher:

STOCKHOLM (AP) — Britain’s national weather service says this year’s global average temperature is on track to reach 1 degree Celsius (1.8 degrees Fahrenheit) above pre-industrial levels for the first time.

That’s a symbolically important level as it’s halfway to the 2 degrees C (3.6 degrees F) that governments have set as a limit to avoid dangerous levels of warming. The Met Office’s projection Monday was based on January-September data. Officials said the El Nino weather phenomenon is having a strong impact this year, but added “it’s clear that it is human influence driving our modern climate into uncharted territory.”

They noted it doesn’t mean every year from now will be at least 1 degree warmer “as natural variability will still play a role.”

Tags: , , ,

Nov 09


Why in the name of God are London’s Police traveling to Israel?:

JUST GET A LOAD OF THIS: A few years ago a traitor of the very highest order named Michael Chertoff decided the US police force needed advice & training from none other than the Israeli IDF, in other words cowardly thugs that brutalise & murder unarmed civilians! Naturally, being Zionist controlled, no one in the US media questioned this decision. Would it have been so inappropriate to ask –

What earthly reason does our Police force need advice from the Israelis?

Worse still, not only are these crazy decisions being made, what’s crucial is they’re being made on the quiet. Moreover, they’re exists a policy across the whole media spectrum so that under no circumstances the Israeli connection is ever mentioned. The US police are doing whatever they’re doing & it has nothing to do with Israel! Continue reading »

Tags: , , , , ,

Nov 08

Cameron PigGate scandal

Hog roasted! Lewes bonfire burn effigy of Cameron with a pig’s head (VIDEO):

Just when Prime Minister David Cameron thought the laughter and ridicule of the #PigGate scandal had smoldered out, the people of Lewes decided to mark Guy Fawkes night by burning an effigy of the Tory leader – naked with a pig’s head in his lap.

The Sussex town is famous for making its Bonfire Night festivities go with a bang, and hasn’t disappointed this November 5.

Twitter user @MattyJam92 spotted this year’s Guy, which is traditionally burned atop a bonfire, being towed into place Thursday morning. Unlike the more common effigies of Guy Fawkes, the English Catholic who attempted to blow up the Houses of Parliament in 1605, Lewes burned a compromising incarnation of the prime minister.

The #PigGate scandal, which stemmed from a startling claim that Cameron put “a private part of his anatomy” into a dead pig’s mouth at a student initiation ceremony while a student at Oxford, led to an endless barrage of jokes and mockery. The PM has denied the claim, made in an unauthorized biography of Cameron by former Tory party donor Lord Ashcroft.

Tags: , , , ,

Nov 07

MI5 ‘secretly collected phone data’ for decade:

MI5 has secretly been collecting vast amounts of data about UK phone calls to search for terrorist connections.

The programme has been running for 10 years under a law described as “vague” by the government’s terror watchdog. Continue reading »

Tags: , , , , , , , ,

Nov 06

Radioactive honey found near nuclear power station:

Honey contaminated with nuclear waste has been found near a disused power station in Scotland, scientists have confirmed, with samples of the product testing positive for “elevated” radioactivity.

The samples showed levels of radioactive caesium-137 that are 14 times higher than samples of honey from elsewhere in the UK, prompting scientists to call for an investigation into wider contamination at the site. Continue reading »

Tags: , , , ,

Nov 06

Alistair Burt
Alistair Burt

Tory health minister deliberately blocks law to give NHS cheap drugs when patents expire:

Alistair Burt denied accusations that the parliamentary manoeuvre was ‘disgraceful’

A Conservative health minister has deliberately blocked a new law to provide cheap and effective drugs for the NHS by championing medicines whose patents have expired.

Alistair Burt spoke for nearly half an hour to “filibuster” the proposed Off-Patent Drugs Bill, a plan that had cross-party support from backbenchers. Continue reading »

Tags: , , ,

Nov 06

A police car was set on fire by an anti-capitalist demonstrator, who was wearing a Colmar ski jacket that cost hundreds of pounds

Photos and video here:

Chaos on the streets of London: Million Mask March anarchist – in a £500 jacket – trashes police car as fireworks are aimed at horses in clashes outside Buckingham Palace and Hunger Games premiere:

  • Thousands of masked anti-capitalist demonstrators descended on central London for a Bonfire Night protest 
  • Video footage taken shows activist smashing up flaming police car while wearing jacket worth hundreds of pounds
  • They also tried to target Buckingham Palace, launching bottles, cones and fireworks at mounted police outside  
  • At least 50 people have been arrested and four police officers have been taken to hospital with injuries
  • Anonymous, the anarchist hacking group behind the march, told those taking part, ‘police are not your friends’
  • Do you know the protester in the pricey Colmar jacket? Call 0203 615 1265 or email

Thousands of protesters wearing sinister Guy Fawkes masks brought chaos to the streets of London last night.

Hundreds of anarchists were held back by police outside Buckingham Palace. They aimed fireworks at the police horses and also tried to dazzle them with laser pointers. Continue reading »

Tags: , ,

Nov 03


UK Introduces Legislation Requiring Tech Companies to Spy on Their Users:

In the wake of Edward Snowden’s revelations detailing pervasive secretive and unconstitutional government spying, many tech companies have taken steps to secure users privacy via end-to-end encryption.

Of all the world’s “leaders,” one person has stood out from the crowd by consistently advocating the most destructive, ignorant and authoritarian solutions. That man is UK Prime Minister David Cameron.

I’ve highlighted this fact time and time again here at Liberty Blitzkrieg. Here are a few examples in case you need some context: Continue reading »

Tags: , , , , , , , , , ,