- Gov’t Report: 1,000,000 Bq/m3 of Plutonium was detected in ocean by Fukushima — “Contaminated waters transported rapidly to the east” across Pacific — Fukushima crisis is “the most important direct liquid release of artificial radioactivity into sea ever known” — Scientists: “Remember, its not just cesium isotopes that were released” (ENENews, March 27, 2015):
Comparison between modelling and measurement of marine dispersion, environmental half-time and 137Cs inventories after the Fukushima Daiichi accident, Pascal Bailly du Bois (IRSN), Pierre Garreau (IFREMER), Philippe Laguionie (IRSN), Irène Korsakissok (IRSN), 2014: Contamination of the marine environment following the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) represents the most important influx of artificial radioactivity released into the sea ever recorded… The direct liquid releases from FDNPP represent the largest influx of artificial radioactivity into the sea ever occurring over a short period of time on a small spatial scale… Although controlled releases of liquid effluent from the Sellafield reprocessing plant can be compared in terms of total quantities, they have occurred over several years (1970-1980) instead of days, weeks and months as in the case of the FDNPP accident… [W]hatever the detailed current direction at the time of the accident is, water mass fluxes were governed by the generally strong Kuroshio and Oyashio currents that are stable at this scale… Contaminated waters will be transported rapidly to the east… Contamination of the marine environment following the accident at the FDNPP represents the most important direct liquid release of artificial radioactivity into the sea ever known… Continue reading »
Tags: Environment, Fukushima, Global News, Japan, Nuclear, Nuclear reactors, Oceans, Plutonium, Radiation
- Dead sea creatures “covering the sand with a sea of red” on California beach; Witnesses: “Bazillions of crab-like things washed ashore… I’ve never seen these before, it’s incredible” — ‘Glow in the dark’ organisms recently stranded nearby; Official: “No one here has ever seen it!” (VIDEO) (ENENews, March 23, 2015):
Orange County Register, Feb 25, 2015 (emphasis added): Tiny crabs still coming in waves off Balboa Island — Thousands… created a rim of red along the shoreline, scattered on the sand along the sleepy seaside of Balboa Island in Newport Beach… Experts say the crabs – which are about 1-to 3-inches long – haven’t been seen in the area for decades… The pelagic crabs are the latest in a year of odd sightings… glow-in-the-dark organisms called pyrosomes washed ashore in September, and before that a blue, jellyfish-like creatures… Continue reading »
Tags: animals, California, Environment, Global News, Oceans
- Former Official: “40+ areas where extremely contaminated water flows directly into ocean” at Fukushima — Bloomberg: “4 years out, Fukushima reactors still spewing… Fishermen alleging for a while that radioactive water spilling into Pacific… astounding nobody at Tepco has gone to jail” (AUDIO) (ENENews, March 13, 2015):
Bloomberg, Columnist William Pesek, Mar 10, 2015: Four years out, Fukushima reactors still spewing — Fishermen trawling the waters off Japan’s eastern coast have been alleging for a while that radioactive water was again spilling into the Pacific from the Fukushima power plant… On Feb. 24 [Tepco] admitted those suspicions were justified. And it turns out that Tepco knew about this latest radioactive leak since last May — and the giant utility said nothing for almost a year. In the 15 days since Tepco finally confessed, have investigators raided its Tokyo headquarters? Have regulators demanded that heads roll? Has Prime Minister Shinzo Abe used his bully pulpit to demand accountability?… Tokyo was a scary place to be in March 2011 amid Fukushima’s triple meltdown. Most frightening, though, was the utter lack of transparency from the authorities… Even in the context of Japanese cronyism, it’s astounding that nobody at Tepco has gone to jail… At the very least, Tepco’s senior management should be fired without pensions and face charges from prosecutors… Continue reading »
Tags: Environment, Fukushima, Global News, Japan, Nuclear, Nuclear reactors, Oceans, Radiation
- Expert: Disease outbreak on US West Coast is largest ever seen in any population of animals — Tens of millions dead — Official: Gov’t needs to declare emergency before extinction occurs — Many scientists believed radiation from Fukushima to blame (VIDEO) (ENENews, March 14, 2015):
McClatchy, Mar 13, 2015 (emphasis added): With millions of starfish dying all along the West Coast [and] disintegrating into mush [Congressman Denny Heck wants NOAA] to declare “sea star wasting syndrome” an emergency before the starfish becomes extinct.
National Geographic, Jan 23, 2015: [It’s killed] tens of millions of sea stars.
Cornell Prof. Drew Harvell, sea star researcher, Mar 13, 2015: “There has never been an outbreak of disease in natural populations of animals that I know that’s been this large.”
Newport Beach official Michelle Clemente: “All of our area’s sea stars have disintegrated” Continue reading »
Tags: animals, Environment, Fukushima, Global News, Japan, Nuclear, Nuclear reactors, Oceans, Radiation, Science, Sea Stars
- Gov’t: It’s getting “even worse” on West Coast — Experts say over 35,000 baby sea lion could be dead, “this phenomenon unprecedented in scale” — Hundreds of times more pups than usual at rescue center — Doctor: “Definitely indicates ocean not normal… Really, we should be worried” (AUDIO) (ENENews, March 4, 2015):
NOAA, Feb 18, 2015 (pdf): We are seeing an unusually large increase of California sea lion pups stranding [that’s] intensified over the last few weeks… it is very difficult to pinpoint what is causing the increase… [There are] warmer waters than usual, but an official El Nino has not yet been declared… [We are] preparing for the worst… health trends of marine mammals [inform] us about the health of the entire ecosystem… if the stranding numbers exceed the 2013 UME [facilities will be unable to] accept more animals… animals may be left on the beach [or] humanely euthanized.
Malibu Surfside News, Mar 3, 2015: The number of animals that can be rescued and rehabilitated is very small compared to the total number of pups in distress… in 2013, Federal officials estimated that 70 percent of the total number [~35,000 out of 50,000 newborns] may have died and experts say that the numbers may be even higher this year. Continue reading »
Tags: animals, Economy, Global News, Oceans, Sea Lions
- Report: Fukushima fallout detected in U.S. fish — Dose equal to samples caught 100 miles from plant — Persistently high levels detected in marine life offshore “not anticipated… orders of magnitude” more than expected — “Measurements needed… along predicted plume trajectory” (ENENews, March 2, 2015):
Excerpts from ‘Radiological Dose Rates to Marine Fish from the Fukushima Daiichi Accident: The First Three Years Across the North Pacific’, includes authors from Japan’s National Institute of Radiological Sciences and Oregon St. Univ., 2015 (emphasis added):
- A more complete record is emerging of radionuclide measurements in fish [from] across the Pacific… Fish 100–200 km east of [Fukushima], coastal fish in the Aleutian Islands… and trans-Pacific migratory species, all had increased dose rates as a consequence of the FDNPP accident. Continue reading »
Tags: Environment, Fish, Fukushima, Global News, Japan, Nuclear, Nuclear reactors, Oceans, Radiation
- TEPCO Admits Delaying Report Of Major Radiation Leak Into The Pacific Ocean For 10 Months (ZeroHedge, Feb 25, 2015):
While faith in Japanese ‘economics’ is starting to falter (borne out by the split in the BoJ and endless macro data disappointments), trust in TEPCO and its governmental operators must be about to hit a new record low. Having promised and given up on the ice-wall strategy to stop radioactive water leaking into the ocean, Bloomberg reports TEPCO officials have admitted that it’s investigating the cause of a spike in radiation levels (23,000 becquerels/liter vs the legal limit of 90) in drainage water that it believes subsequently leaked into the Pacific ocean from the wrecked Fukushima nuclear power plant. The bigger problem, as NBC reports, TEPCO failed to report the leak for 10 months!
Continue reading »
Tags: Environment, Fukushima, Global News, Japan, Nuclear, Nuclear reactors, Oceans, Radiation, TEPCO
- ‘Absolute Shock’: Nuclear waste on roof of Fukushima reactor flowing directly into Pacific — Kept secret for past year and did nothing to stop it — Contamination coming from debris on top of Unit 2; Gundersen: Pressure in reactors got so high “it blew the top off” — “Fallout is far from over… International fury rising” (VIDEO) (ENENews, Feb 25, 2015):
Japan Times, Feb 25, 2015 (emphasis added): Radioactive isotopes [have] been draining into the Pacific… from the roof of the No. 2 reactor building, which is highly contaminated…. Meanwhile on Sunday, Tepco reported water contaminated with high levels of radiation was flowing into the ocean at the plant’s port.
Kyodo News, Feb 25, 2015: Highly toxic water leaks into ocean from Fukushima plant — Highly radioactive rainwater [is] accumulating on the rooftop of the No. 2 reactor building… In a separate incident… highly contaminated water leaked into the nearby bay through a different gutter… The cause and the amount of water leakage remain unknown. Continue reading »
Tags: Environment, Fukushima, Global News, Government, Japan, Nuclear, Nuclear reactors, Oceans, Radiation
- FOX L.A.: “Dead sea lions litter Malibu beaches, families shocked… WARNING: Graphic Images” — Babies being eaten by birds — So many 911 calls about dying animals it’s “bogging down system” — “Scientists say this year is worst in history” — Tells us “major changes are going on out in the ocean” (VIDEO) (ENENews, Feb 24, 2015):
FOX 11 News, Feb 23, 2015 (emphasis added): Dozens of dead Sea Lions litter Malibu beaches; families shocked — A family stumbled upon nearly 10 dead sea lions on a Malibu beach Sunday (WARNING: GRAPHIC IMAGES IN THIS STORY AND VIDEO) “We just came down the stairs and little sea lions are being washed on to shore dying,” Neda Soderqvist says… “It was devastating to see a bunch of sea lions just lying dead. It wasn’t one or two it was six or eight,” Soderqvist said to FOX 11′s Christine O’Donnell. The sight was especially difficult for her seven-year-old… “They came up and just died right in front of us,” Isabella said… Earlier in the week, Kristin Thames says stumbled across the same devastating scene… “They’re only allowed to take three sea lion pups because there’s not enough space at the rescue centers for more,” Thames said, “it’s really sad.”
Marin Independent Journal, Feb 21, 2015: “First time in our history that we have had sea lion pups here this early” [said] Shawn Johnson, director of veterinary science at the mammal center… sea lions are a sentinel species, a canary in the coal mine. “They can tell us what is happening in the ocean and if it’s unhealthy.” Continue reading »
Tags: animals, Environment, Global News, Oceans, Sea Lions
- FOX San Diego: Sardines, Crayfish ‘Disappeared From Pacific Ocean … They’ve Just Vanished’
- CBS: Officials alarmed as several types of marine mammals begin washing up in California — “Now entire coast is being affected” — “Whole population getting hit hard … a real shock to us” — Animals of all ages sick, not only newborns
- TV: “Animals basically dying on our beaches” along West Coast — “New, worse calamity seems to be unfolding” — Experts: “Like walking skeletons”; “So hungry they gnaw on rocks”; “Skin hanging off”; “Extremely unusual… maybe the fish have all left”; “Prepare for the worst”
- Gov’t: Sea urchins with insides empty, bare skeletons, and black lesions in Hawaii — Birds dying of unusual cancers, rarely seen in wildlife
- “Sea creatures sick, dying or disappearing at alarming rate all along Pacific coast… Some wonder if it’s fallout from Fukushima” — New York Times: “Ocean Life Faces Mass Extinction” — Study: “We may be on precipice of major extinction event” in marine wildlife
- “Alarming Numbers”: Over 15,000 baby sea lions may have died off California coast — “Marine biologists warn it could deplete an entire generation” — “Heralding the demise of something else beneath the waves”? (VIDEO) (ENENews, Feb 15, 2015):
LA Times, Feb 12, 2015 (emphasis added): [A] record number of sea lions [have] been rescued in recent weeks. “One hundred and two California sea lions in the last 10 days,” a spokeswoman for the [Marine Mammal Center] said… The influx is unprecedented…
National Geographic, Feb 12, 2015: Since January 1, nearly 500 of the tiny animals have been [rescued] a number many times higher than normal. Why these animals are struggling to survive is a mystery… California sea lions are considered a sentinel species, meaning they’re seen as indicators of ocean health. Generally, if sea lions are suffering, something is wrong offshore. In this case, scientists still don’t really know what that something is… Starting in January 2013, waves of starving sea lion pups began washing ashore… Scientists noted that the stranding pattern resembled that of severe El Niño years [with] warm ocean waters… The trouble was, these weren’t El Niño years… January 2014, strandings started to swell again… Now, 2015 is looking even worse… more than 470 sea lions have been admitted to California rehab centers… For now, it’s too soon to say… if the sea lion pups are heralding the demise of something else beneath the waves. Continue reading »
Tags: animals, Environment, Global News, Oceans, Sea Lions
- FOX San Diego: Sardines, crayfish “disappeared from Pacific Ocean… they’ve just vanished” — Marine mammals starving, struggling to survive on West Coast — Strandings in past 5 weeks already exceed what’s normally seen for an entire year — “Much larger” than anything on record (VIDEOS) (ENENews, Feb 10, 2015):
Fox 5 San Diego transcript, Feb 9, 2015 (emphasis added): It’s been a record year right now for seal and sea lion rescues all along our coast… For some reason sardines and crayfish have pretty much disappeared from the Pacific Ocean — and that is having a very negative impact on seals and sea lions, especially their babies…
Dr. Todd Schmitt, who runs Sea World’s Animal Rescue Center, Feb 9, 2015: “This time of year, we’re seeing 10 times the numbers we’d normally see during the stranding season… They’re all just severely malnourished. They’re coming in emaciated, dehydrated, really severe body condition… They just can’t find food on their own… We think the food – fish — they’re looking for isn’t there. That crayfish, the sardines, have just vanished from California waters, at least around the Channel Islands and coastal areas, so they’re just not able to find food… They’re struggling to survive right now.” Continue reading »
Tags: animals, Environment, Global News, Oceans
- CBS: Officials alarmed as several types of marine mammals begin washing up in California — “Now entire coast is being affected” — “Whole population getting hit hard… a real shock to us” — Animals of all ages sick, not only newborns — “Really hard to wrap our heads around what’s happening” (VIDEO) (ENENews, Feb 2, 2015):
Orange County Register, Jan 25, 2015 (emphasis added): … Marine mammal experts say the numbers could hit even higher levels than in 2013 [a record-setting year for sea lion strandings], which federal officials called an unusual mortality event… The difference this year: Starving pups showed up as early as December. Sick females and juveniles are also being found… “The difference [now] is we’re not just seeing little pups,” said Lauren Palmer, a veterinarian [with the Marine Mammal Center at Fort MacArthur]. “Females and yearlings are coming in… It’s really hard to wrap our head around the story of what’s happening.”…
David Bard, operations director at the Marine Mammal Care Center in San Pedro, Jan 19, 2015: “What we’re seeing that’s different is we are seeing a wider array of species and age groups, so in other words [in 2013] we were seeing primarily California sea lion pups, this year we’re also seeing harbor seals and fur seals as well as some sub-adults and adults.” Continue reading »
Tags: animals, Environment, Global News, Oceans
- TV: “Animals basically dying on our beaches” along West Coast — “New, worse calamity seems to be unfolding” — Experts: “Like walking skeletons”; “So hungry they gnaw on rocks”; “Skin hanging off”; “Extremely unusual… maybe the fish have all left”; “Prepare for the worst” (VIDEOS) (ENENews, Feb 1, 2015):
Fox San Diego, Jan 27, 2015 (emphasis added): SeaWorld rescue teams have taken in more than 50 baby sea lions stranded on San Diego shores… “Their skin is so loose hanging off them, it looks like they’re wearing pajamas” [said SeaWorld’s] Jody Wetberg…
LA Times, Jan 30, 2015: “Their growth is stunted,” said Shawn Johnson… at the Marine Mammal Center… “They’re basically starved to death — no muscle, no fat, just skin and bones.”… January 2015, however, has been “extremely unusual” for the Northern California center, he said. In winter, the sea lion population is concentrated in Southern California, then shifts northward in late summer, Johnson said. So for the center to see so many animals is cause for further concern… “Maybe the fish have all left, and that’s why this is happening.” Continue reading »
Tags: animals, Environment, Global News, Oceans, Sea Lions
- TV: Gov’t approves plan to ‘drain’ Fukushima nuclear waste into ocean — Professor: Monitoring necessary to detect ‘worrisome signals’ — Expert: “It’s completely unsafe… impossible to remove 100s of radioactive materials” — 1,200 radionuclides, only 62 reduced — Fisherman: “We can’t trust Tepco” (VIDEO) (ENENews, Jan 21, 2015):
NHK, Jan 21, 2015 (emphasis added): Regulators approve Fukushima wastewater drainage — Japan’s nuclear regulator has approved a plan by [TEPCO] to drain filtered wastewater from the firm’s crippled Fukushima Daiichi plant into the sea… The firm also plans to reduce the level of radioactive material in the water before releasing it into the nearby Pacific. On Wednesday, the Nuclear Regulation Authority approved TEPCO’s plan to install drainpipes and a pumping system and to reduce the level of radioactive cesium-137 to less than one becquerel per liter. Continue reading »
Tags: Environment, Fukushima, Global News, Government, Japan, Nuclear, Nuclear reactors, Oceans, Politics, Radiation
- Gov’t: Sea urchins with insides empty, bare skeletons, and black lesions in Hawaii — Birds dying of unusual cancers, rarely seen in wildlife (PHOTOS) (ENENews, Jan 22, 2015):
USGS National Wildlife Health Center Honolulu Field Station, 2014 (emphasis added):
- Focus: Sea Urchin Disease — The Nature Conservancy (TNC) first observed sick-looking urchins at an old sunken barge [in] Oahu. They were also observed more recently on patch reefs in Kaneohe Bay (KB), Oahu… The first report of sick-looking urchins was made back in late February of 2014. Then in early May, sick-looking urchins were observed at KB… HFS [Honolulu Field Station], DLNR [Department of Land and Natural Resources], and TNC set out to investigate and conducted surveys at both sites, collecting healthy and sick urchins. Necropsies were then conducted at the HFS lab to determine cause of death… Affected urchins have dull flattened spines (droopy urchins), or gradual to complete loss of spines (outside skeleton bare). Some are found empty with some tissue and spine remaining on their surface. At this point, the public is encouraged to report any sick or dead urchins to the Eyes Of the Reef network in order to determine how widespread this event is. Laboratory efforts are underway to try and identify what is causing this disease.
- Necropsy Files: Tumors in Birds — In August 2013, an adult nene from Hawaii died of lymphoma, a cancer of blood cells. In September, 2013, a critically endangered Rota crow died from liver cancer. These two cases were unusual in that cancer is rare in wildlife in general. Most wild animals do not live long enough to get cancer and usually die from things like starvation, trauma, or infectious diseases. Continue reading »
Tags: animals, Cancer, Environment, Global News, Hawaii, Oceans
- “Sea creatures sick, dying or disappearing at alarming rate all along Pacific coast… Some wonder if it’s fallout from Fukushima” — New York Times: “Ocean Life Faces Mass Extinction” — Study: “We may be on precipice of major extinction event” in marine wildlife (VIDEO) (ENENews, Jan 18, 2015):
Williams Lake Tribune columnist Diana French, Jan 13, 2015 (emphasis added): Out of sight is out of mind. Those of us living in the Interior might not know or care that sea creatures are sick, dying or disappearing at an alarming rate all along the Pacific coast. There are dying oysters, bleeding herring, melting star fish, hungry Orcas and sick seals. The latest are dead seabirds… Some blame ocean acidification for the devastation, others wonder if it’s radiation fallout from Fukushima. Whatever, it might be helpful to find the cause before all the creatures are gone. Continue reading »
Tags: animals, Environment, Fukushima, Global News, Japan, Nuclear, Nuclear reactors, Oceans, Radiation
- ABC: ‘Mysterious surge’ in sick marine mammals all along California coast — Infested with parasites, extremely emaciated; “Very seriously ill… in very bad shape” — Experts: “We’re extremely concerned right now” — Deaths up 1,500% at rescue facility — ‘Number mystifies officials’ (VIDEOS) (ENENews, Jan 13. 2015)
Orange County Register, Jan 10, 2015 (emphasis added): 8 sea lions rescued in OC in just over a week; number mystifies officials — It’s not normal for eight sea lions to need rescuing in just over a week — especially at this time of year. But that’s exactly what has happened… six were pups and yearlings… [one] only 21 pounds, and [another] 23 pounds… [Experts don’t] know why it’s happening.
ABC 7′s Greg Lee, Jan 12, 2015: Sad, sad photo: Huge increase in rescued #sealions across CA
ABC Los Angeles, Jan 12, 2015: Sea lions in distress — a mysterious surge in sick sea lions… here in S. California and statewide… New at 5, a big increase in the number of stranded sea lions being rescued… Some of them very seriously ill… nearly a dozen sea lions at the Pacific Marine Mammal Center. Facilities across California are reporting a massive increase in the number of sea lions needing to be rescued in 2015… Baby sea lions [are] in very bad shape. Continue reading »
Tags: animals, California, Environment, Global News, Oceans, Sea Lions, U.S.
- Engineer: Outright failures continue to plague Fukushima plant — “Public may think worst is over… Nothing could be further from the truth” — Japan TV: New method failing to stop flow of highly contaminated water — Experts: ‘Diluting’ radiation in ocean adds to danger; Spreading it out only makes health damages worse (VIDEO) (ENENews, Jan 12, 2015):
Dr. Steve Elwart, professional engineer and expert for Dept. of Homeland Security, Dec 14, 2014 (emphasis added): With most of the media silent about the cleanup, the public may think the worst is over [at Fukushima Daiichi]… Nothing could be further from the truth… [Radioactive water is] leaking out into the ocean, allowing it to spread… around the world through ocean currents [and this has] prompted grave concerns over the impact on sea life in the area and around the world. [Officials] decided to build an “ice wall” around the reactor site… TEPCO conceded defeat and announced the efforts to construct the plug failed… As if things couldn’t get worse, less than two months ago, TEPCO once again came out with an announcement that it was having problems with the ice wall [and] was going to cease operations on the ice wall and pour cement… TEPCO President Naomi Hirose stated officials “will never give up” on the wall… debate continues over how to stop water from leaking into the ocean… outright failures continue to plague the Fukushima cleanup efforts. Continue reading »
Tags: Environment, Fukushima, Global News, Japan, Nuclear, Nuclear reactors, Oceans, Radiation
- VIDEO: Fukushima corium found in Pacific — Flowing into ocean after hydrogen dissolves nuclear fuel — Scientist: We’ve actually seen plutonium floating on surface; “We have no control over this accident… they’ve got leaks everywhere” (ENENews, Jan 2, 2015):
2014 Conference on Radioecology and Environmental Radioactivity (final link at bottom of page), K. Buesseler, E. Black, and S. Pike of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution; T. Kenna of Lamont-Doherty Earth Obseratory; P. Masqué of Autonomous University of Barcelona, Sept 12, 2014 (emphasis added): Plutonium Isotopes In The Ocean Off Japan After Fukushima — The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plants (NPPs) are known to be an unprecedented accidental source of 137Cs, 134Cs and other volatile radionuclides to the ocean. Much less is known however about the extent of input of refractory radionuclides such as plutonium to the environment. Limited available data from land soils and vegetation, suggest at least some atmospheric delivery of particulate Pu… In 2011, in surface ocean waters, we found ratios 240Pu/239Pu >0.3, which implies a component of Fukushima Pu had been delivered to the ocean… Fukushima derived Pu was not found deeper in the water column. Continue reading »
Tags: Environment, Global News, Nuclear, Nuclear reactors, Oceans, Radiation
- The Fukushima Endgame: The Radioactive Contamination of the Pacific Ocean (Global Research, Dec 17, 2014):
Nuclear radiation resulting from the March 2011 Fukushima disaster –which threatens life on planet earth– is not front page news in comparison to the most insignificant issues of public concern, including the local level crime scene or the tabloid gossip reports on Hollywood celebrities.
The shaky political consensus both in Japan, the U.S. and Western Europe is that the crisis at Fukushima has been contained.
The truth is otherwise. Known and documented, the ongoing dumping of highly radioactive water into the Pacific Ocean constitutes a potential trigger to a process of global radioactive contamination.
This water contains plutonium 239 and its release into the Ocean has both local as well as global repercussions. A microgram of plutonium if inhaled, according to Dr. Helen Caldicott, can cause death:
Certain isotopes of radioactive plutonium are known as some of the deadliest poisons on the face of the earth. A mere microgram (a speck of darkness on a pinhead) of Plutonium-239, if inhaled, can cause death, and if ingested, radioactive Plutonium can be harmful, causing leukemia and other bone cancers. Continue reading »
Tags: Environment, Fukushima, Global News, Government, Health, Japan, Nuclear, Nuclear reactors, Oceans, Politics, Radiation