Concerns Grow About A Nuclear “Incident” In Europe After Spike In Radioactive Iodine Levels

Concerns Grow About A Nuclear “Incident” In Europe After Spike In Radioactive Iodine Levels:

Concerns about a potential, and so far unsubstantiated, nuclear “incident”, reportedly in the vicinity of the Arctic circle, spread in the past week after trace amounts of radioactive Iodine-131 of unknown origin were detected in January over large areas in Europe according to a report by the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, the French national public expert in nuclear and radiological risks. Since the isotope has a half-life of only eight days, the detection is an indication of a rather recent release. As the Barents Observer adds, “where the radioactivity is coming from is still a mystery.”

The air filter station at Svanhovd – located a few hundred meters from Norway’s border to Russia’s Kola Peninsula in the north – was the first to measure small amounts of the radioactive Ionide-131 in the second week of January.  Shortly thereafter, the same Iodine-131 isotope was measured in Rovaniemi in Finnish Lapland. Within the next two weeks, traces of radioactivity, although in tiny amounts, were measured in Poland, Czech Republic, Germany, France and Spain.

Read more

EPA: Models show “greater potential impact” to US West Coast from rainfall containing Fukushima radioactive material — California sea water with over 10 Million pCi/m3 of iodine-131 found in sample squeezed out of seaweed

EPA: Models show “greater potential impact” to US West Coast from rainfall containing Fukushima radioactive material — California sea water with over 10 Million pCi/m3 of iodine-131 found in sample squeezed out of seaweed (ENENews, Sep 9, 2014):

Environmental Protection Agency — Response to Fukushima Japan Nuclear Emergency: “Sea Water — Radioactive material released to ocean [by] intentional release of contaminated water used for cooling [and] leakage from damaged reactor… Modeling indicates greater potential impact to US coastal areas from precipitation than from [ocean] transport.”

And Another Important Article On The Fukushima Nuclear Disaster Has Been Deleted

Aaaand it’s gone …

Government Under Fire as Radiation Is Found in Milk, Rain (Bay Citizen, April 2, 2011):

And Another Important Article On The Fukushima Nuclear Disaster Has Been Deleted

Proof that this article once existed via Google:

And Another Important Article On The Fukushima Nuclear Disaster Has Been Deleted-2

You decide for yourself if somebody wants to keep this important information from you.

You can still read the article HERE:

California: Radioactive Iodine-131 In Rainwater 181 Times Above Drinking Water Standards, Has Also Been Detected In Multiple Milk Samples, While US Gov Has Still Not Published Any Official Data On Japan Disaster:

Government Under Fire as Radiation Is Found in Milk, Rain

Federal officials have still not published any official data on nuclear fallout from Japan disaster

Government Under Fire as Radiation Is Found in Milk, Rain (Bay Citizen, April 2, 2011):

Radiation from Japan rained on Berkeley during recent storms at levels that exceeded drinking water standards by 181 times and has been detected in multiple milk samples, but the U.S. government has still not published any official data on nuclear fallout here from the Fukushima disaster.

Dangers from radiation that is wafting over the United States from the Fukushima power plant disaster and falling with rain have been downplayed by government officials and others, who say its impacts are so fleeting and minor as to be negligible.

But critics say an absence of federal data on the issue is hampering efforts to develop strategies for preventing radioactive isotopes from accumulating in the nation’s food and water supplies.

Read more

AND NOW: UN Scientists Report Fukushima Is Not Chernobyl; Expect No ‘Significant Changes’ In Cancer Rates

For your WTF folder …

From the article:

“… even though the most exposed children may face an increased risk”

Now here is what those UN scientists call ‘increased risk’:

Arnie Gundersen: Terrifying Cancer Data For Fukushima – ‘Statistics Are Astounding Especially For Young Girls’

75 Fukushima Children Confirmed Or Suspected With Thyroid Cancer – Expert: ‘Gene Pool Is Damaged’; Surge In Disease Expected

Over 44% Of Fukushima Children Have Thyroid Abnormalities

Fukushima: More Then 42% of Children Have Thyroid Nodules Or Cysts (German TV Video, Nov 18, 2012):

More than 42% of 57,000 tested children have nodules or cyst, reports Dr. Suzuki who leads the examinations. In Chernobyl they found only 0.1 – 1%.

From the article:

“The amounts of radioactive substances such as iodine-131 released after the 2011 accident were much lower than after Chernobyl,…”

Really?

U.S. Navy Vice Admiral Alan Thompson Reported 1,500 MICROSIEVERTS Per Hour Thyroid Dose South Of Tokyo On March 20, 2011

From the article:

“… and Japanese authorities also took action to protect people living near the stricken plant, including evacuations.”

By hiding the true extend of the disaster & failing to hand out potassium iodide tablets to the Japanese people?

So Fukushima shouldn’t have any effects here in the US, right?

Study: 28% Increase In Thyroid Problems In Babies Born After Fukushima in Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon and Washington

Flashback:

Fukushima Is An Extinction Level Event: 17.91 Billion Lethal Doses (By Ingestion) Chasing Each And Every One Of Us On The Planet … And That’s Just From The Amount Of Cesium-137 (Veterans Today)

Fukushima Now Equal To 50 Plus Chernobyls & 3,000 Billion Lethal Doses Of Radiation (Veterans Today)

Japanese TV Program In 1993: What Happened to Chernobyl Children 7 Years after the Accident? ‘Truly Terrible Things Emerged Several Years After The Accident’ – THE CRIMINAL IAEA EXPOSED (Video)

Prof. Yury Bandazhevsky: Over 50 Bq/Kg In Humans Leads To Irreversible Lesions In Vital Organs – CRIMINAL WHO And IAEA EXPOSED (Video)


Blinky-Fukushima

UN Reports Fukushima Is Not Chernobyl; Expects No “Significant Changes” In Cancer Rates (ZeroHedge, April 6, 2014):

Just as we should be re-assured by Shinzo Abe’s declaration that the Olympics will be ‘safe’ in Japan (despite his incessant calls for recovery in the Japanese economy when it is actually collapsing under its own devalued currency import costs); the UN is out with a report that states it did not expect “significant changes” in future cancer rates that could be attributed to radiation exposure from the reactor meltdowns. The levels, according to their report, were much lower than Chernobyl and therefore the Fukushima nuclear disaster is unlikely to lead to a rise in people developing cancer. But… some children ‘might’ have received doses that could affect their risk of developing cancer later in life…

Via Japan Times,

The Fukushima nuclear disaster is unlikely to lead to a rise in people developing cancer as happened after Chernobyl in 1986, even though the most exposed children may face an increased risk, U.N. scientists said Wednesday.

Read more

Fukushima: Mayor Evacuated His Own Kids While Trying To Get Other Families To Stay

Fukushima Farmer: Nuclear is the most terrible thing, people don’t realize how horrible and scary it is — Sending this to future generations is unbelievable — “I don’t want to be their guinea pig” — Mayor evacuated his own kids while trying to get families to stay, this is a significant crime (AUDIO) (ENENews, March 4, 2014):

NHK, Mar. 3, 2014 (emphasis added): Japan’s education ministry has revised its instructional booklets on radiation […] The new booklets include maps […] They also explain the impact of harmful rumors about the disaster on the farming and tourism industries […] Education ministry officials say they hope the materials will provide accurate facts about Fukushima to help school children make the right decisions.

Interview with Kenichi Hasegawa, farmer from Iitate village, Fukushima Prefecture, Greenpeace Canada, Mar. 3, 2014 (at 4:15 in):

  • They gathered residents in […] a very highly radioactive place. After these ‘radiation safe’ lectures, the mayor of Iitate Village came and directly thanked the lecturers in front of the village people. This kind of thing repeated again and again. […] the mayor himself evacuated his own children to other areas. I think this is a significant crime. […] children can’t run away by themselves. And these lecturers reassured the parents to stay here, and so the children stayed too. So I think what the mayor did is a crime. […] Mr. Yamashita he was really terrible, because he said what the government is saying is right, you have to believe them because you are the people — you are the nation. And also he said, “I’m a doctor and I’m a scientist and I have data backing me up. That’s why you need to believe […] The radiation, it likes negative people.”
  • “I don’t want to be their guinea pig,” that’s what I wrote and sent to [Yamashita]. What’s incredible to me, what’s making me very angry — according to some news article in Asahi recently — those people are now saying that iodine pills should have been taken at that time […] which is unforgivable.

    Read more

Fukushima ‘Caused Significant Deposition Of Radioactivity Over North America’ – 13% Of All Radioactive Iodine Released Into Atmosphere Was Deposited Over USA And Canada

Study: Fukushima airborne plumes “caused significant deposition of radioactivity over North America” — Especially for West Coast and eastern U.S. — Around 13% of all radioactive iodine released into atmosphere was deposited over USA and Canada (MAP) (ENENews, Feb 14, 2014):

Fukushima Caused Significant Deposition Of Radioactivity Over North America

European Commission, Science for Environment Policy News Alert (pdf): The 2011 nuclear accident at Fukushima, Japan, caused the release of large amounts of radionuclides (unstable atoms that produce radioactive emissions) to the atmosphere. Caesium and iodine radionuclides can negatively affect human health through the contamination of air, water, soil and agricultural products. The EU-funded study1 modelled the global spread of radionuclides of caesium and iodine from Fukushima in the atmosphere […] or iodine radionuclides […] meteorological conditions and convection promote more long-distance transport. This is because iodine does not dissolve as easily as caesium so it remains in a gaseous form and is redistributed by convection to the troposphere (lowest part of atmosphere) where the wind speed is greater and transports the iodine greater distances. The model results suggest that 12.7% of iodine radionuclides were deposited over the USA and Canada […] Approximately 50-60% was deposited locally in Japan.

Read more

Congenital Hypothyroidism And Fukushima Fallout In The U.S.

Congenital Hypothyroidism and Fukushima Fallout in the US (Institute of Science in Society, Jan 20, 2014):

“Plume of airborne radioactive iodine arrival in the US correlates with increased rates of congenital hypothyroidism among the new born.”
Dr Mae-Wan Ho

A new study finds congenital hypothyroidism in the US rising 28 % in the two and a half months after the arrival of the Fukushima fallout of radioactive iodine (I-131) [1]. Researchers and authors Joe Mangano and Janette Sherman from the Radiation and Public Health Project [2] have done a thorough job based on data from the US government.

Congenital hypothyroidism & prenatal exposure to radioactive iodine

Read more

Prof. Chris Busby: Fukushima Fallout Damaged The Thyroids of California Babies

Fukushima Fallout Damaged the Thyroids of California Babies (CounterPunch, Nov 19, 2013):

by CHRIS BUSBY

A new study of the effects of tiny quantities of radioactive fallout from Fukushima on the health of babies born in California shows a significant excess of hypothyroidism caused by the radioactive contamination travelling 5,000 miles across the Pacific. The article will be published next week in the peer-reviewed journal Open Journal of Pediatrics.

Congenital hypothyroidism is a rare but serious condition normally affecting about one child in 2,000, and one that demands clinical intervention – the growth of children suffering from the condition is affected if they are left untreated. All babies born in California are monitored at birth for Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) levels in blood, since high levels indicate hypothyroidism.

Read more

UN: ‘Fukushima Radiation Worse Than Feared’ – Government And Tepco ‘Ignore’ Effects Of Radioactive Iodine

“Fukushima radiation worse than feared” — Gov’t and Tepco ‘ignore’ effects of radioactive iodine (VIDEO) (ENENews, Oct 13, 2013):

NHK WORLD, Oct. 12, 2013: UN panel: radiation dose may be underestimated […] Investigators from the UN Scientific Committee of Atomic Radiation […] raised doubts about estimates by the Japanese government and [TEPCO] […] The UN committee found the Japanese government and TEPCO ignored the effects of radioactive iodine. […]

Reuters (via Al Jazeera), Oct. 13, 2013: UN: Fukushima radiation worse than feared […] the tests used on workers did not take into account some types of radiation. In particular, workers were tested for thyroid gland doses from radioactive iodine after a significant delay, through procedures that failed to account for iodine-132 and iodine-133, which have half-lives of two hours and 20 hours respectively. […] Increased radiation exposure has been linked to greater rates of cancer and thyroid disorders.

Read more

Fukushima Doom Confirmed? France Hit By Iodine-131 Cloud While New Radiation Plume Expected To Hit West Coast Of America On Sep 24, 2013

Wish I would have seen and posted this earlier.


Fukushima Doom Confirmed? France Hit By Iodine-131 Cloud While New Radiation Plume Expected To Hit West Coast Of America On Tuesday (Before It’s News, Sep 22, 2013):

A cloud of Iodine-131 has reached France while the recent 5.3 Fukushima earthquake is sending a new radiation plume around the world according to a recent story from Bobby1′sBlog. This latest plume is expected to arrive on the West Coast of America on Tuesday, September 24th. With radiation now spreading across the entire Northern hemisphere and no end in sight, are we reaching the ‘beginning of the end’? Two videos below confirm the severity of this ongoing doomsday situation.

An earthquake that rocked Japan just south of the Fukushima area shortly after midnight on September 20 (Japan time) sent a new plume of radiation across the Pacific Ocean. Apparently radiation measurements in this area have temporarily spiked.

This new plume would arrive on the west coast around Tuesday, Sept. 24. Previous earthquakes have also generated plumes. I remember that the one that arrived after the Jan. 1, 2012 quake was really nasty.

In a previous discussion Iodine-131 from latest criticality it was noted that the iodine spike in Chiba prefecture sludge was deposited in the period August 7 through August 20. According to CRIIRAD, Montélimar, France had spikes in alpha and beta atmospheric radiation on September 4-7. Rhône river water in Avignon showed a spike in iodine-131 on Sept. 7. The iodine cloud must have widened and dispersed quite a bit in its journey across the northern hemisphere… and 75% or more of it would have decayed by the time it reached France. So it must have been quite a substantial radioactive cloud.

Fukushima not only affects Japan, but the Pacific ocean, North America, and Europe too. Australia has had average radiation levels increase substantially, also.

Radiation Treatment Turns Thyroid Cancer Patients Into ‘Dirty Bombs’

Here are the effects of the Fukushima iodine-131 ‘treatment’:

Study: 28% Increase In Thyroid Problems In Babies Born After Fukushima in Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon and Washington

Over 44% Of Fukushima Children Have Thyroid Abnormalities

Seven More Fukushima Children Suspected To Have Thyroid Cancer

WHO: Fukushima Workers Had Over 10 SIEVERTS Thyroid Dose

‘Many People From Even Tokyo Have Thyroid Problems Already’

Fukushima: More Then 42% of Children Have Thyroid Nodules Or Cysts (German TV Video, Nov 18, 2012):

More than 42% of 57,000 tested children have nodules or cyst, reports Dr. Suzuki who leads the examinations. In Chernobyl they found only 0.1 – 1%.

And maybe some more information on the other ‘successful’ cancer treatments:

75% of physicians in the world refuse chemotherapy for themselves

US Scientists Find That Chemotherapy Boosts Cancer Growth

Chemotherapy Backfires Causes Healthy Cells To Feed Growth Of Cancer Tumors

Chemotherapy And Radiotherapy Make Cancer More Malignant (Video)

Alternative medicine cures cancer:

The Gerson therapy for example has an overall CURE rate of  95% for cancer and a 50% cure rate for terminal ill cancer patients.


After Radiation Treatment Thyroid Cancer Patients Dangerously Radioactive (Huffington Post, Oct 20, 2010):

WASHINGTON — Reports of thyroid cancer patients setting off radiation alarms and contaminating hotel rooms are prompting the agency in charge of nuclear safety to consider tighter rules.

A congressional investigation made public Wednesday found that patients sent home after treatment with radioactive iodine have contaminated unsuspecting hotel guests and set off alarms on public transportation.

They’ve come into close contact with vulnerable people, including pregnant women and children, and trash from their homes has triggered radiation detectors at landfills.

Read more

Study: 28% Increase In Thyroid Problems In Babies Born After Fukushima in Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon and Washington

Study: 28% Increase In Thyroid Problems In Babies Born After Fukushima in Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon and Washington (ZeroHedge, April 3, 2013):

Infants are much more vulnerable to radiation than adults. And see this.However, radiation safety standards are set based on the assumption that everyone in the world is a healthy man in his 20s.

Now, a medical doctor (Janette D. Sherman, M. D.) and epidemiologist (Joseph Mangano) have released a study showing a 28% increase in thyroid problems in babies born in Hawaii and America’s West Coast after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

Janette Sherman, M.D. worked for the Atomic Energy Commission (forerunner of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission) at the University of California in Berkeley, and for the U.S. Navy Radiation Defense Laboratory in San Francisco. She served on the EPA’s advisory board for 6 years, and has been an advisor to the National Cancer Institute on breast cancer. Dr. Sherman specializes in internal medicine and toxicology with an emphasis on chemicals and nuclear radiation.

Joseph J. Mangano is a public health administrator and researcher who has studied the connection between low-dose radiation exposure and subsequent risk of diseases such as cancer and damage to newborns. He has published numerous articles and letters in medical and other journals in addition to books, including Low Level Radiation and Immune System Disorders: An Atomic Era Legacy.

Their new study – published in the Open Journal of Pediatrics – is entitled “Elevated airborne beta levels in Pacific/West Coast US States and trends in hypothyroidism among newborns after the Fukushima nuclear meltdown.”

Common Dreams notes:

[The study found that] children born in Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon and Washington between one week and 16 weeks after the meltdown began are 28 percent more likely to suffer from congenital hypothyroidism (CH) than were kids born in those states during the same period one year earlier.

Read more

Philadelphia: Radioactive Iodine-131 Found In City Water, Almost 2 Times Over Legal Limit

Spike in iodine-131 found in city water (Philly, Dec 8, 2012):

Levels of radioactive iodine-131 in a city drinking-water intake rose to their highest level yet earlier this year.

However, city and state officials noted the spike, measured Oct. 17 at the Belmont water plant, is a one-time event. It’s not a public health concern, they said, and the water remains safe to drink.

Read more

Fukushima: Radiation, Politics and Public Relations – Part II (Veterans Today)

MUST-READ!


Fukushima: Radiation, Politics and Public Relations II (Veterans Today, Nov 11, 2012):

by Leuren Moret, Dr. Majia Nadesan and Jim Fetzer (with Major William Fox)

On Friday, 30 March 2012, Dr. Majia Nadesan and Leuren Moret appeared as the featured guests on “The Real Deal” hosted by Jim Fetzer to discuss the radiation effects of the Fukushima disaster and the fashion in which it has been covered up both by the Japanese and the American governments and media.  Dr. Nadesan, a professor of communication in the Division of Social and Behavioral Sciences in the New College of Interdisciplinary Arts and Sciences at Arizona State University, has studied Fukushima extensively.  Ms. Moret is an independent geoscientist who has done expert studies on the Fukushima disaster and radiation problems around the world, including depleted uranium.  What they had to tell us smacks of politics and public relations and is profoundly disturbing. This is Part II of the original interview, which can be heard here.

Introduction

by Major William Fox

NOTE: I invited Major William Fox (former USMCR commissioned officer), who was instrumental in arranging this interview to prepare an introduction. His key point is that the first line of defense to handle any major crisis is accurate information. Tragically, not only has accurate information been deliberately withheld from Americans regarding the Fukushima crisis, but they have also been steadily fed disinformation.  He continues:

The stealth dirty nuclear war currently being visited upon America goes far beyond government and major media disinformation, although there is certainly plenty of the latter as well as the former.  Dr. Majia Nadesan stated in this interview,

“In June it was reported in the Japanese press that there was actually melt-through. A melt-through is when the melted corium melts through all levels of containment. And not a single U.S. media — I did a search using EBSCO and using LexisNexis to see if any U.S. media picked up in June the Japanese report about the melt-through, and not one single U.S. media picked up that story. A melt-through means that the situation is out of control. Corium is sinking deeper into the ground while sporadically undergoing `limited criticalities’ and releasing ever more extremely dangerous volumes of contamination into the atmosphere, ground water, and ocean. The entire public in Japan, North America, and elsewhere needs to understand how this situation remains out of control.”

The failure to report these melt-throughs was followed by the Japanese government’s big lie perpetrated in December 2011 that all the reactors were in “cold shut down,” implying that all the melted nuclear fuel remained safely within their containment chambers and were subject to stable cooling systems which guaranteed against any further criticalities or radiation releases. Nothing could have been further from the truth. .

Read more

Fukushima: Radiation, Politics And Public Relations – Part I (Veterans Today)

MUST-READ!


Fukushima: Radiation, Politics and Public Relations (Veterans Today, Nov 11, 2012):

by Leuren Moret, Dr. Majia Nadesan and Jim Fetzer (with Major William Fox)

On Friday, 30 March 2012, Dr. Majia Nadesan and Leuren Moret appeared as the featured guests on “The Real Deal” hosted by Jim Fetzer to discuss the radiation effects of the Fukushima disaster and the fashion in which it has been covered up both by the Japanese and by the American governments. Nadesan, PhD., a professor of communication in the Division of Social and Behavioral Sciences in the New College of Interdisciplinary Arts and Sciences at Arizona State University, has studied Fukushima extensively.  Moret is an independent geoscientist who has done expert studies on the Fukushima disaster, radiation problems around the world including depleted uranium.  What they had to tell us smacks of politics and public relations and is profoundly disturbing.  This is Part I of the original interview, which can be heard here:

Introduction by Major William Fox

NOTE: I invited Major William Fox (former USMCR commissioned officer), who was instrumental in arranging this interview to prepare an introduction. His key point is that the first line of defense to handle any major crisis is accurate information. Tragically, not only has accurate information been deliberately withheld from Americans regarding the Fukushima crisis, but they have also been steadily fed disinformation.  He continues:

Dr. Majia Nadesan reports in the interview below that on 16 December  2011, The Wall Street Journal wrote that the total radiation dispersed over a broad swath of northern Japan was 15% of what was released from Chernobyl. In contrast, the summary report of the RSMC [Regional Specialized Meteorological Center] Beijing on the Fukushima nuclear accident emergency stated that the total amount of radiation released from Fukushima in the first five days was equal to Chernobyl. In addition, scientists found radio-Xenon levels in the Pacific Northwest at 450,000 times average concentration levels in the weeks following Fukushima — not to mention other dangerous concentrations of radio-nuclides well beyond what any Western Europe countries ever experienced following Chernobyl.

Then we learn from Dr. Nadesan that, “…People in the Pacific Northwest actually inhaled between five and ten hot particles a day in the first month of the disaster — it could take 20 years for cancer to develop or it could take ten years or thirty years. But the significance is that the Western Press in the United States and in Europe as well as in Japan has trivialized the amount of radiation released by using terms like `no acute effects’, `no immediate health effect’…” Dr. Nadesan also comments:

“…If you look at the recently released NRC transcripts, they were projecting the dose to the thyroid of a one year old child, and they had different calculations. But one of their calculations was a thyroid dose of 30 millisieverts just from iodine to the thyroid of a one year old child annualized. And 30 millisieverts is a lot of radiation… clearly there was no effort to make any kind of recommendations to the public to keep their kids inside or to stop drinking milk or dairy, which was found in the wake of Chernobyl to be the primary vector by which small children were exposed to iodine is through milk. And that’s disturbing.”

Read more

Study: 15-Year-Olds From Fukushima Town Got An Estimated 77,000 Becquerels Of Iodine-131 … In Just 4 Hours

Study: 15-year-olds from Fukushima town got an estimated 77,000 becquerels of iodine-131… in just 4 hours — Area a destination for evacuees fleeing radiation (ENENews, Oct 6, 2012)

See also:

– CONFIRMED: 36 Percent Of Fukushima Kids Have Abnormal Thyroid Growths And Doctors Are In The Dark (Business Insider)

‘COLD SHUTDOWN’ In Japan: Iodine 131 Measured In Yamanashi, Kawasaki, Yokohama, Chiba, Gunma And Tokyo

Iodine 131 measured in Tokyo (Fukushima Diary, May 3, 2012)

Iodine 131 measured in Kawasaki, Yokohama, Chiba and Gunma (Fukushima Diary, May 3, 2012)

Iodine 131 measured in Yamanashi (Fukushima Diary, May 3, 2012)

 

Dr. Helen Caldicott (Co-Founder Of Physicians For Social Responsibility): Pacific Northwest Got Whacked Hard By Fallout From The Fukushima Disaster With Radiation Rates Hundreds Of Thousands Of Times Higher Than Normal Background Radiation (Video – April 2, 2012)

MUST-SEE!

Watch the video here:

Dr. Helen Caldicott (Co-Founder Of Physicians For Social Responsibility): What We Learned From Fukushima (Video – April 2, 2012)