– Facebook’s solar-powered internet plane looks like a stealth bomber (The Verge, July 30, 2015):
Meet the flying ISP
Facebook’s plans to become a flying internet service provider for the developing world are coming to fruition. The company today introduced Aquila, a high-flying, long-endurance plane that will bring basic internet access to the developing world. A working model of the plane is now ready for testing, Facebook said.
Facebook’s shallow, V-shaped plane has the wingspan of a Boeing 737. But even fully loaded down with communications gear, Aquila only weighs between 880 to 1,000 lbs — about a third the weight of a Prius. “When deployed, it will be able to circle a remote region for up to 90 days, beaming connectivity down to people from an altitude of 60,000 to 90,000 [feet],” the company said in a blog post. This means the planes will be flying at an altitude above commercial aircraft, and even above the weather. Continue reading »
– Your Facebook, Twitter and blog are about to be monitored for references to the Government (Metro, June 5, 2015):
If you’re one of those people that gets a bit vocal about politics, you’ll be interested to know that your Facebook, Twitter and personal blog are about to begin being monitored for references to the Government.
Ministers announced yesterday that the Government had awarded a contract to five companies who will monitor what people tweet, post to Facebook or blog about the Government and provide updates to Whitehall in real time.
Officials and ministers will provide a list of keywords and topics to the companies so that they know what to monitor. Continue reading »
– Turkey Bans Social Media Over Hostage Photos (ZeroHedge, April 6, 2015):
It looks as though Turkish authorities are once again set to show Twitter “the power of the Republic of Turkey,” as reports indicate access to social media in the country has been blocked. The move looks to be related to the widespread dissemination of pictures showing prosecutor Mehmet Selim Kiraz after he was taken hostage in Istanbul by DHKP-C last week. Here’s more:
Turkish authorities have blocked access to Twitter, Youtube and Facebook over the publication of photos published on the three social media platforms, showing a prosecutor who was taken hostage by militants in Istanbul last week.
– Facebook Reveals its Master Plan – Control All News Flow (Liberty Blitzkrieg, March 24, 2015):
In recent months, Facebook has been quietly holding talks with at least half a dozen media companies about hosting their content inside Facebook rather than making users tap a link to go to an external site.
The new proposal by Facebook carries another risk for publishers: the loss of valuable consumer data. When readers click on an article, an array of tracking tools allow the host site to collect valuable information on who they are, how often they visit and what else they have done on the web.
And if Facebook pushes beyond the experimental stage and makes content hosted on the site commonplace, those who do not participate in the program could lose substantial traffic — a factor that has played into the thinking of some publishers. Their articles might load more slowly than their competitors’, and over time readers might avoid those sites.
– From the New York Times article: Facebook May Host News Sites’ Content
Last night, I came across an incredibly important article from the New York Times, which described Facebook’s plan to provide direct access to other websites’ content in exchange for some sort of advertising partnership. The implications of this are so huge that at this point I have far more questions than answers.
– Facebook Does it Again – Company Sends Funeral Home Advertisements to Cancer Sufferer (Liberty Blitzkrieg, March 12, 2015):
I don’t know what it’s going to take to get people to stop using Facebook. I really don’t.
Last month, I highlighted an extremely important warning from Salim Varani in the post, A Very Disturbing and Powerful Post – “Get Your Loved Ones Off Facebook.” If you somehow missed that piece, go ahead and read it now. Here’s an excerpt to give you a little taste: Continue reading »
– A Very Disturbing and Powerful Post – “Get Your Loved Ones Off Facebook” (Liberty Blitzkrieg, Feb 5, 2015):
“Oh yeah, I’ve been meaning to ask you why you’re getting off Facebook,” is the guilty and reluctant question I’m hearing a lot these days. Like we kinda know Facebook is bad, but don’t really want to know.
I’ve been a big Facebook supporter – one of the first users in my social group who championed what a great way it was to stay in touch, way back in 2006. I got my mum and brothers on it, and around 20 other people. I’ve even taught Facebook marketing in one of the UK’s biggest tech education projects, Digital Business Academy. I’m a techie and a marketer — so I can see the implications — and until now, they hadn’t worried me. I’ve been pretty dismissive towards people who hesitate with privacy concerns.
With this latest privacy change on January 30th, I’m scared.
– From Salim Varani’s blogpost: Get Your Loved Ones Off Facebook
I never heard of Salim Varani before today, but when I came across his blogpost “Get Your Loved Ones Off Facebook,” it immediately piqued my interest given my less than positive feelings toward the company. It took on an even greater degree of importance in my mind considering that I had just finished reading what appeared to be a Facebook puff piece at Fusion.net about how the company, guided by “privacy sherpa” Yul Kwon, was suddenly making user privacy a core focus. It read like a PR release. Here are a few excerpts: Continue reading »
– New British army elite unit to hone social media and psychological warfare (RT, Jan 31, 2015):
The British military is to form a new specialist force in “non-lethal” forms of psychological warfare using social media such as Twitter and Facebook to tackle the “asymmetric battlefields” of the 21st century.
The brigade will number 2,000 and will be made up of regular troops from all three services, as well as reservists and civilians, British media report.
It will attempt to draw the best talent from the regulars and reserves and will also allow civilians with specialist skills to operate alongside their military counterparts.
Senior officers have said that the army has to adapt to the changing nature of warfare, as conflicts from Iraq to Ukraine have demonstrated, and that the information war is as important as tanks and artillery. Continue reading »
– Facebook admits censoring posts and comments about political corruption (Examiner, Jan 27, 2015):
The social media giant, Facebook, is currently censoring certain postings and comments by members in countries that object to certain content, the latest being Turkey. A Turkish high court ruled that members’ posts and comments on insult the Prophet Muhammad and are offensive to followers of Islam, according to news reports on Monday.
The Turkish court ruled that the owners and administers of Facebook and its advertisers must conduct their social media website in compliance with the court’s determination or Facebook will be banned in Turkey as it already is in other Muslim nations such as Pakistan. The Turkish court announced its decision on Sunday night, said the reports. “A person with knowledge of the matter confirmed that Facebook blocked content in Turkey following a valid legal request. That content remains visible, however, outside the country,” according to the New York Times. Continue reading »
– ‘Hostile to privacy’: Snowden urges internet users to get rid of Dropbox (RT, Oct 12, 2014):
Edward Snowden has hit out at Dropbox and other services he says are “hostile to privacy,” urging web users to abandon unencrypted communication and adjust privacy settings to prevent governments from spying on them in increasingly intrusive ways.
“We are no longer citizens, we no longer have leaders. We’re subjects, and we have rulers,” Snowden told The New Yorker magazine in a comprehensive hour-long interview. Continue reading »
H/t reader squodgy:
“Yet another one backs down, grovelling and asking for forgiveness…..”
And for all those who didn’t know:
Anybody in Germany criticizing the Federal Reserve is now being labeled as anti-Semitic!
Well, at least that should give all those totally ignorant people a clue who is really behind the Fed.
Dear Sabine Wölfle, please add this book to your Facebook page and call your post:
“The Rothschilds: One family rules the world” – A well documented conspiracy FACT!
@Amazon.de: Die Rothschilds: Eine Familie beherrscht die Welt. (Preis: EUR 22,95
(Book title: The Rothschilds: One family rules the world.)
“If my sons did not want wars, there would be none.”
– Gutle Schnaper, wife of Mayer Amschel Rothschild
“I care not what puppet is placed on
the throne of England to rule the Empire, …
The man that controls Britain’s money
supply controls the British Empire.
And I control the money supply.”
– Baron Nathan Mayer Rothschild
“The best time to buy is when blood is running in the street.”
– Baron Nathan Mayer Rothschild
– German politician posts anti-Semitic video of ‘Rothschilds controlling the world’ (The Jerusalem Post, Oct 1, 2014):
BERLIN – The working circle of Jewish Social Democrats blasted on Wednesday a German social democratic politician for posting a crude anti-Semitic conspiracy video about the Rothschild family on her Facebook page.
“This morning we became aware that the SPD regional politician Sabine Wölfle posted an anti-Semitic and conspiratorial video on her Facebook page. We are shocked that a regional politician lacks basic knowledge about the connotations of conspiracy theories, in which the frequently mentioned, all-encompassing, financial power of the Rothschild family stands at the center. We demand a clear apology for the spreading of anti-Semitic propaganda.”
Wölfle serves as a member of parliament for the Social Democrats in the government of the southern German state of Baden-Württemberg.
German anti-Semites have long depicted the Rothschilds as a nefarious family determined to control the world. Nazi Germany produced a 1940 film tiled “The Rothshilds” showing the Jewish Rothschild family as a lethal threat to Germany. The conclusion of the film shows a burning Star of David over a map of England, suggesting that the Jews control the United Kingdom in its war against Nazi Germany.
The alleged anti-Semitic video posted by Wölfle is titled “The Power of the Rothschilds.” The video, which was viewed by The Jerusalem Post, claims the family dominates the financial capital London and “control the media.” The narrator says the Rothschilds are responsible for the “mass murders of millions.” Continue reading »
– Kentucky Man Arrested for “Terroristic Threatening” After Posting Song Lyrics to Facebook (Liberty Blitzkrieg, Sep 8, 2014):
It seems as if the never-ending stream of American plebs being arrested for the most innocuous activities, things that were seen as completely normal just a few years ago, is continuing its irrational march forward toward peak nanny-statism, at which point everything will be criminalized.
This disturbing trend has been a key topic for Liberty Blitzkrieg in 2014. Here are the three most recent absurd cases from July and August alone: Continue reading »
– Facebook given deadline in ‘largest privacy class action in Europe’ (RT, Aug 22, 2014):
Facebook has been given four weeks to respond to a class action, launched against it by an Austrian activist and supported by 60,000 users. The suit claims Facebook violated users’ privacy, by cooperating with the NSA’s PRISM program.
The class action initiated by Max Schrems, an Austrian lawyer, data privacy activist and founder of Europe vs. Facebook group has passed its first review in the Vienna Regional Court.
Facebook Ireland, which runs the social network’s activities outside the US and Canada, has been given four weeks to respond to the action.
— europe-v-facebook (@europevfacebook) August 21, 2014
“The order is very likely on the way to Facebook. The first step in the legal procedure is hereby taken,” said a statement by Europe vs. Facebook on Thursday
The group has described the suit, joined by 25,000 users, as “the largest privacy class action in Europe” and specified that 35,000 more users have registered on www.fbclaim.com, expressing their will to join the action should it expand. Continue reading »
– Truth seekers rushing to Diaspora and Unseen.is to escape censorship of corporate-run social media (Natural News, Aug 19, 2014):
Share this alert with everyone you know in alternative media, natural health, honest journalism and truth-seeking: The era of “mainstream social media” (i.e. Facebook, etc.) as a trusted social media hub is coming to a close. As everyone has noticed by now, Facebook selectively censors posts based on their keyword content, suppressing truthful information about natural cures, GMOs, mercury in vaccines and even cancer prevention strategies.
Everyone in the truth movement now fully realizes that corporate-run social media will always be controlled by corporate interests. Thus, it is useless for the kind of honest investigative journalism the world really needs right now in this era of unprecedented information oppression and propaganda. An alternative social sharing network has long been sought which could serve as a trusted, independent, non-corporate gathering place for truth seekers.
We have now identified two online organizations which serve this purpose. They are both rooted in open-source programming, freedom of information and individual liberty. They run on donations (so be sure to donate to them, see below) and therefore are not beholden to the interests of powerful corporations. Continue reading »
– Facebook mind control experiment was nothing compared to the deliberate manipulations of the mass media (Natural News, July 7, 2014):
The internet erupted in protest last week over the revelation that Facebook ran a psychological experiment on 700,000 users designed to see just how easily information could be used to manipulate their emotions. “Facebook’s ill-advised psychological experiment is alarming because it suggests that the Internet, in the wrong hands, can be a powerful weapon to subtly manipulate public opinion and promote a political agenda,” wrote David Einstein of SFgate.com.
Everyone else chimed in with similar condemnations: The Wall Street Journal, ZDNet, CNN, USA Today and more. Messing with the emotions of people in a “grand social experiment” was wrong, they insisted.
But hold the presses for a second. Facebook may have run a mind control experiment on 700,000 people, but the mainstream media plays mind games on tens of millions every single day. Continue reading »
– What Your “Startlingly Intimate, Voyeristic” NSA File Looks Like (ZeroHedge, July 6, 2014):
A few days ago, we asked a simple rhetorical question: “Are you targeted by the NSA?”
The answer, sadly for those reading this, is very likely yes, as it was revealed that as part of the NSA’s XKeyscore program “a computer network exploitation system, as described in an NSA presentation, devoted to gathering nearly everything a user does on the internet” all it takes for a user to be flagged by America’s superspooks is to go to a website the NSA finds less than “patriotic” and that user becomes a fixture for the NSA’s tracking algos.
So assuming one is being tracked by the NSA – or as it is also known for politically correct reasons “intercepted” – as a “person of interest” or worse, just what kind of data does the NSA collect? The latest report by the WaPo titled “In NSA-intercepted data, those not targeted far outnumber the foreigners who are” sheds much needed light on just how extensive the NSA’s data collection effort is.
According to WaPo, the files on intercepted Americans “have a startlingly intimate, even voyeuristic quality. They tell stories of love and heartbreak, illicit sexual liaisons, mental-health crises, political and religious conversions, financial anxieties and disappointed hopes. The daily lives of more than 10,000 account holders who were not targeted are catalogued and recorded nevertheless.”
The Post reviewed roughly 160,000 intercepted e-mail and instant-message conversations, some of them hundreds of pages long, and 7,900 documents taken from more than 11,000 online accounts.
Tags: 1984, Barack Obama, Big Brother, Facebook, George Orwell, Global News, Google, Government, Internet, Microsoft, New World Order, NSA, Obama administration, Politics, Society, Surveillance, U.S., XKeyscore, Yahoo
– Facebook founder called trusting users ‘DUMB FUCKS’ (The Register)
– Journal that published Facebook psych study sorry…social network not (RT, July 4, 2014):
The journal that has published the Facebook mood swings study regrets the way the study was conducted. Facebook issued a sorry statement for accessing the content of 700,000 people’s pages, but the company’s second-in-command said she has no regrets.
It was concluded by the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences journal that the move to manipulate the content appearing on the Facebook pages of about 700,000 people without their prior consent may have violated some principles of academic research. Continue reading »
– Facebook mind control experiments linked to DoD research on civil unrest (RT, July 2, 2014):
Facebook’s experiment on over half-a-million unsuspecting users has taken a new twist with the revelation that a researcher connected to a Department of Defense-funded program to use the military to quell civil unrest also participated in the study.
Social media sites exploded over the weekend after it was revealed that Facebook, no stranger to controversy of late, secretly manipulated posts being seen by nearly 700,000 users in 2012 in order to allow researchers to study how emotional states are transmitted over the platform.
Results of the week-long study conducted by researchers at Facebook, Cornell University, and the University of California appeared in the June edition of the journal ‘Proceedings of the National Academy of Scientists’ (PNAS) under the rather insidious title, ‘Experimental evidence of massive-scale emotional contagion through social networks’. Continue reading »
Tags: Barack Obama, Civil Unrest, Defense Department, Department of Defense, Facebook, Global News, Government, Internet, Mind-Control, Obama administration, Pentagon, Politics, Social Engineering, Society, U.S.
Yes, it is difficult to guess who really is behind CIAbook.
– Facebook founder called trusting users ‘DUMB FUCKS’ (The Register)
– Was The Department Of Defense Behind Facebook’s Controversial Manipulation Study? (Liberty Blitzkrieg, July 1, 2014):
I’ve spent pretty much all day reading as much as possible about the extremely controversial Facebook “emotional contagion” study in which the company intentionally altered its news feed algorithm to see if it could manipulate its users’ emotions. In case you weren’t aware, Facebook is always altering your news feed under the assumption that there’s no way they could fill your feed with all of your “friends’” pointless, self-absorbed, dull updates (there’s just too much garbage).
As such, Facebook filters your news feed all the time, something which advertisers must find particularly convenient. In any event, the particular alteration under question occurred during one week in January 2012, and the company filled some people’s feeds with positive posts, while others were fed more negative posts.
Once the data was compiled, academics from the University of California, San Francisco and Cornell University were brought in to analyze the results. Their findings were then published in the prestigious Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. They found that: Continue reading »
Tags: Barack Obama, CIA, Defense Department, Department of Defense, Facebook, Global News, Government, Internet, Mind-Control, Obama administration, Pentagon, Politics, Social Engineering, Society, U.S.
– Everything We Know About Facebook’s Secret Mood Manipulation Experiment (Atlantic, June 28, 2014):
It was probably legal. But was it ethical?
Facebook’s News Feed—the main list of status updates, messages, and photos you see when you open Facebook on your computer or phone—is not a perfect mirror of the world.
But few users expect that Facebook would change their News Feed in order to manipulate their emotional state. Continue reading »
– ‘Snooper’s charter’: UK govt pushes for access to social media (RT, June 26, 2014):
Britain’s Home Secretary is pushing for new spying powers to access social media and email accounts. Theresa May argues that it’s a “matter of life and death,” and has dismissed claims the government wants to spy on citizens.
The British Home Office is pushing for changes to the law that would radically expand powers to monitor citizens. The communications data bill, which has been branded ‘the snooper’s charter’ by opponents, would allow authorities access to Facebook, Twitter and Instagram accounts.
In addition, services like Facetime and Skype would also be accessible to the UK authorities. Continue reading »
– ‘You are unauthorized’: Nearly 50% of EU organizations deny access to personal data (RT, June 24, 2014):
Four out of ten organizations obstruct citizens from accessing their own personal data, says a recent study. Companies like Google, Facebook and Twitter also fail to fulfill their duty to be transparent.
The international study, conducted by experts from the University of Sheffield, has inspected at least 327 organizations across Europe, including the UK, Norway and Germany. Continue reading »
People across America are getting arrested for posting non-violent criticisms of Barack Obama. In the case you’re about to see, one Marine veteran was sent to psychiatric training and diagnosed with ODD (Oppositional Defiance Disorder) for his criticism of the way government is being run.
– Iraq blocks Twitter, Facebook, YouTube amid growing ISIS threat (RT, June 13, 2014):
The Iraqi government has blocked access to top social media sites like Facebook and Twitter, reportedly to hinder the activities of militants formerly associated with Al-Qaeda. Meanwhile, thousands are signing up to fight the jihadist insurgency in Iraq.
Numerous media reports citing journalists and open-internet advocates said that internet users in Iraq are getting block screens when trying to access top social media sites and Google. Continue reading »
– Conspiracy Fact – How the U.S. Government Covertly Invented a “Cuban Twitter” to Create Revolution (Liberty Blitzkrieg, April 3, 2014):
It appears the U.S. government is doing its best to ensure that nobody anywhere in any corner of planet earth will ever trust American technology again (or U.S. aid for that matter). This process of distrust first really got going with the Edward Snowden revelations, which demonstrated that essentially all major U.S. tech firms are mere wards of the state with little to no privacy protections, and absolutely zero backbone.
This story of the U.S. government covertly creating a “Cuban Twitter” called ZunZuneo in order to overthrow the regime there has enormous long-term ramifications on many, many levels, which I will address throughout this post.
From the AP via The Washington Post:
WASHINGTON — In July 2010, Joe McSpedon, a U.S. government official, flew to Barcelona to put the final touches on a secret plan to build a social media project aimed at undermining Cuba’s communist government.
McSpedon and his team of high-tech contractors had come in from Costa Rica and Nicaragua, Washington and Denver. Their mission: to launch a messaging network that could reach hundreds of thousands of Cubans. To hide the network from the Cuban government, they would set up a byzantine system of front companies using a Cayman Islands bank account, and recruit unsuspecting executives who would not be told of the company’s ties to the U.S. government.
McSpedon didn’t work for the CIA. This was a program paid for and run by the U.S. Agency for International Development, best known for overseeing billions of dollars in U.S. humanitarian aid.
Now we can pretty much guarantee that foreign nations will forever be skeptical of any U.S. “aid”. Great work morons. Continue reading »
– Facebook Buying Virtual-Reality Company for $2B (AP, March 26, 2014):
Facebook is buying virtual reality company Oculus, betting $2 billion that its technology will become a new way for people to communicate, learn or be entertained.
“This is a long-term bet on the future of computing,” said Facebook Chief Executive Mark Zuckerberg Tuesday on a call with analysts. “I believe Oculus can be one of the platforms of the future.”
Irvine, Calif.-based Oculus VR Inc. makes the Oculus Rift, a virtual reality headset that’s received a lot of attention from video game developers, though it has yet to be released for consumers. The headsets cover a user’s eyes and create an immersive world that reacts to turning one’s head or moving back and forth.
– Turkey Set To Block YouTube Momentarily, After Google Refuses To Yank Clips Exposing Prime Minister (ZeroHedge, March 21, 2014):
As was reported earlier, the Turkish premier, embroiled in what increasingly appears a career terminating corruption and embezzlement scandal (it is not exactly clear yet just how involved the CIA is in this particular upcoming government overthrow), blocked Turkey’s access to Twitter last night, hours after vowing to “destroy twitter.” The idiocy of this escalation against dissemination of information in the internet age needs no comment. Well maybe one. This is what we said in our post from this morning: “since Turkey will certainly not stop at just Twitter, here is what is coming next: “Last week, Erdogan said the country could also block Facebook and YouTube.” It now appears that at least half of this threat is about to materialize because moments ago Google just announced that it would not remove a previously uploaded video, one in which Erdogan tells his son to hide money from investigators (one which can be seen here), and which Erdogan demanded be pulled from Google (seemingly unaware that by doing so he simply made sure that everyone saw it). This means that within days, if not hours, Turkey will likely block Google-owned YouTube, if not Google itself. Continue reading »
– Italians beg Swiss: please buy Sardinia (The Local, Feb 26, 2014):
Could Sardinia become Switzerland’s 27th canton? In a bid to ease Italy’s economic woes, a Facebook campaign has been set up to sell the southern Italian island of Sardinia to the Alpine country.
The “Maritime Canton” (“Canton Marittimo”) Facebook group has gained more than 3,500 members attracted to the debate of selling Italy’s second-largest island to the wealthy Swiss.
“We are investigating the willpower of Sardinians of allowing Italy to sell Sardinia to Switzerland, to repay part of the public debt and restart the national economy,” the group description reads.
I’ve decided to not bombard my readers (and myself) with advertising, like ‘google adsense’ (or better ‘nonsense’), which would have been a good source of income.
This makes income generation for Infinite Unknown pretty much dependent on your donations.
Even the smallest donation helps and is much appreciated.
– DO NO EVIL GOOGLE – CENSOR & SNITCH FOR THE STATE (The Burning Platform, Feb 25, 2014):
“The conscious and intelligent manipulation of the organized habits and opinions of the masses is an important element in democratic society. Those who manipulate this unseen mechanism of society constitute an invisible government which is the true ruling power of our country. We are governed, our minds are molded, our tastes formed, our ideas suggested, largely by men we have never heard of.
This is a logical result of the way in which our democratic society is organized. Vast numbers of human beings must cooperate in this manner if they are to live together as a smoothly functioning society. In almost every act of our daily lives, whether in the sphere of politics or business, in our social conduct or our ethical thinking, we are dominated by the relatively small number of persons who understand the mental processes and social patterns of the masses. It is they who pull the wires which control the public mind.”
– Edward Bernays – Propaganda
I find the quote above by Edward Bernays to be a perfect synopsis for everything that has come to pass over the last century. The world has become increasingly controlled by an invisible government of greedy Wall Street bankers, shadowy billionaires, immoral big business, crooked politicians, and the military industrial complex, with mammoth media conglomerates, purposefully using propaganda to manipulate and mold the minds of the masses in order to exert power and control over our lives. He wrote those words in 1928, when the only available forms of manipulation were newspapers and radio. Bernays would be ecstatic and delighted with the implements available today used by our corporate fascist state controllers as they deliver the electronic messaging guiding the public mind.
He never dreamed of television, the internet, social media, and the ability of corporations like Google, in full cooperation with the government, to censor the truth, while feeding misinformation and state sanctioned propaganda to the masses in such an efficient and effective mode. Compelling the masses to worship at the altar of technology, while idolizing the evil men running our largest banks and corporations, has been a prodigious success for the shadowy ruling power and their mass media propaganda agents. Mike Lofgren, former congressional insider and author of The Party Is Over: How Republicans Went Crazy, Democrats Became Useless and the Middle Class Got Shafted, describes these mysterious perfidious men as the Deep State:
Tags: 1984, Big Brother, Corporations, Dictatorship, Economy, Facebook, Fascism, George Orwell, Global News, Google, Government, Internet, New World Order, Politics, Society, Surveillance, Technology, Twitter, U.S.
– This Man’s $600,000 Facebook Disaster Is A Warning For All Small Businesses (FB) (Business Insider, Feb 22, 2014)